# Scratch

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Anyone can view user-generated games uploaded back to the website, but a free account is needed to upload games and to download code from other games (which is useful for finding out how other people have solved programming challenges).

There's a new community for educators who teach with Scratch at http://scratched.media.mit.edu/ featuring support, lesson plans, and other resources, but there are no specific dashboard features for teachers that aren’t available to other users.

- geometry
- graphing
- patterns

- making new creations

- digital creation

- problem solving

## ProsAdapts to students’ level of content knowledge, logic, and math readiness. |
## ConsInterface may feel too young for older kids, and games uploaded to the Scratch website can be hard to embed elsewhere. |
## Bottom LineWith plenty of time and support, Scratch can help kids of all ages learn essential programming concepts. |

#### Graphite Expert Review

##### Learning Scores

Students who experience success meeting small programming goals will love progressing along the learning curve. However, students who struggle will need help setting and reaching reasonable goals. The interface could be more attractive.

Scratch is a project from MIT's Lifelong Kindergarten Group that teaches math, programming, and creative expression through technology. Most of the learning is tacit and supported by classroom teachers helping kids learn to code, a 21st-century skill that's quickly gaining importance. Students can create animations, games, and models that communicate artistry and learning. Kids or teachers download Scratch to their computer, which takes about 5 minutes over Wi-Fi. The website also hosts community features including a project gallery, support page, and forums.

The application is split into three columns. At left, kids can see available drag-and-drop programming "pieces." In the middle column, kids can program and edit the appearance of specific sprites (characters, buttons, and the like). The rightmost column is split between the game or program (top) and a display of all the assets used in it (bottom). Kids with accounts can upload programs to the website from the application.

Read More Read LessScratch is great for bringing together related pieces of student learning into a multimedia product. For example, students can create narrated vocabulary animations to show what words mean, mathematic models, or multi-stage games. As with any sandbox tool, students and teachers need to establish clear goals and purposes drawn from classroom learning or personal interests. Kids who are used to saying things like "I can’t do this" can, indeed, use Scratch well, but they'll need help coming up with ideas and goals that they can quickly execute and turn into multiple, early successes.

While the interface feels a bit young, kids of all ages can edit graphics and audio to look and sound like anything they want. Once older students understand what they can do with Scratch, they'll quickly look past its cute but juvenile appearance.

Read More Read LessPrintable Scratch Cards on the site's support page help remind kids of coding basics using cute characters, while outside texts can help you support students interested in tackling more complex coding tasks. The user community can also help teachers and students connect Scratch to peripherals such as MaKey MaKey boards and Microsoft Kinect to control programs. The site also features project galleries and forums that support student work, and a new teacher portal, ScratchEd, supports teachers using the application in the classroom.

Read More Read Less## Key Standards Supported

## Geometry | |

1.G: Reason With Shapes And Their Attributes. | |

1.G.1 | Distinguish between defining attributes (e.g., triangles are closed and three-sided) versus non-defining attributes (e.g., color, orientation, overall size); build and draw shapes to possess defining attributes. |

1.G.2 | Compose two-dimensional shapes (rectangles, squares, trapezoids, triangles, half-circles, and quarter-circles) or three-dimensional shapes (cubes, right rectangular prisms, right circular cones, and right circular cylinders) to create a composite shape, and compose new shapes from the composite shape.4 |

1.G.3 | Partition circles and rectangles into two and four equal shares, describe the shares using the words halves, fourths, and quarters, and use the phrases half of, fourth of, and quarter of. Describe the whole as two of, or four of the shares. Understand for these examples that decomposing into more equal shares creates smaller shares. |

2.G: Reason With Shapes And Their Attributes. | |

2.G.1 | Recognize and draw shapes having specified attributes, such as a given number of angles or a given number of equal faces.5 Identify triangles, quadrilaterals, pentagons, hexagons, and cubes. |

2.G.2 | Partition a rectangle into rows and columns of same-size squares and count to find the total number of them. |

2.G.3 | Partition circles and rectangles into two, three, or four equal shares, describe the shares using the words halves, thirds, half of, a third of, etc., and describe the whole as two halves, three thirds, four fourths. Recognize that equal shares of identical wholes need not have the same shape. |

3.G: Reason With Shapes And Their Attributes. | |

3.G.1 | Understand that shapes in different categories (e.g., rhombuses, rectangles, and others) may share attributes (e.g., having four sides), and that the shared attributes can define a larger category (e.g., quadrilaterals). Recognize rhombuses, rectangles, and squares as examples of quadrilaterals, and draw examples of quadrilaterals that do not belong to any of these subcategories. |

3.G.2 | Partition shapes into parts with equal areas. Express the area of each part as a unit fraction of the whole. For example, partition a shape into 4 parts with equal area, and describe the area of each part as 1/4 of the area of the shape. |

4.G: Draw And Identify Lines And Angles, And Classify Shapes By Properties Of Their Lines And Angles. | |

4.G.1 | Draw points, lines, line segments, rays, angles (right, acute, obtuse), and perpendicular and parallel lines. Identify these in two-dimensional figures. |

4.G.2 | Classify two-dimensional figures based on the presence or absence of parallel or perpendicular lines, or the presence or absence of angles of a specified size. Recognize right triangles as a category, and identify right triangles. |

4.G.3 | Recognize a line of symmetry for a two-dimensional figure as a line across the figure such that the figure can be folded along the line into matching parts. Identify line-symmetric figures and draw lines of symmetry. |

5.G: Classify Two-Dimensional Figures Into Categories Based On Their Properties. | |

5.G.3 | Understand that attributes belonging to a category of two- dimensional figures also belong to all subcategories of that category. For example, all rectangles have four right angles and squares are rectangles, so all squares have four right angles. |

5.G.4 | Classify two-dimensional figures in a hierarchy based on properties. |

Graph Points On The Coordinate Plane To Solve Real-World And Mathematical Problems. | |

5.G.1 | Use a pair of perpendicular number lines, called axes, to define a coordinate system, with the intersection of the lines (the origin) arranged to coincide with the 0 on each line and a given point in the plane located by using an ordered pair of numbers, called its coordinates. Understand that the first number indicates how far to travel from the origin in the direction of one axis, and the second number indicates how far to travel in the direction of the second axis, with the convention that the names of the two axes and the coordinates correspond (e.g., x-axis and x-coordinate, y-axis and y-coordinate). |

5.G.2 | Represent real world and mathematical problems by graphing points in the first quadrant of the coordinate plane, and interpret coordinate values of points in the context of the situation. |

6.G: Solve Real-World And Mathematical Problems Involving Area, Surface Area, And Volume. | |

6.G.1 | Find the area of right triangles, other triangles, special quadrilaterals, and polygons by composing into rectangles or decomposing into triangles and other shapes; apply these techniques in the context of solving real-world and mathematical problems. |

6.G.2 | Find the volume of a right rectangular prism with fractional edge lengths by packing it with unit cubes of the appropriate unit fraction edge lengths, and show that the volume is the same as would be found by multiplying the edge lengths of the prism. Apply the formulas V = l w h and V = b h to find volumes of right rectangular prisms with fractional edge lengths in the context of solving real-world and mathematical problems. |

6.G.3 | Draw polygons in the coordinate plane given coordinates for the vertices; use coordinates to find the length of a side joining points with the same first coordinate or the same second coordinate. Apply these techniques in the context of solving real-world and mathematical problems. |

6.G.4 | Represent three-dimensional figures using nets made up of rectangles and triangles, and use the nets to find the surface area of these figures. Apply these techniques in the context of solving real-world and mathematical problems. |

7.G: Draw, Construct, And Describe Geometrical Figures And Describe The Relationships Between Them. | |

7.G.1 | Solve problems involving scale drawings of geometric figures, including computing actual lengths and areas from a scale drawing and reproducing a scale drawing at a different scale. |

7.G.2 | Draw (freehand, with ruler and protractor, and with technology) geometric shapes with given conditions. Focus on constructing triangles from three measures of angles or sides, noticing when the conditions determine a unique triangle, more than one triangle, or no triangle. |

7.G.3 | Describe the two-dimensional figures that result from slicing three- dimensional figures, as in plane sections of right rectangular prisms and right rectangular pyramids. |

Solve Real-Life And Mathematical Problems Involving Angle Measure, Area, Surface Area, And Volume. | |

7.G.4 | Know the formulas for the area and circumference of a circle and use them to solve problems; give an informal derivation of the relationship between the circumference and area of a circle. |

7.G.5 | Use facts about supplementary, complementary, vertical, and adjacent angles in a multi-step problem to write and solve simple equations for an unknown angle in a figure. |

7.G.6 | Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving area, volume and surface area of two- and three-dimensional objects composed of triangles, quadrilaterals, polygons, cubes, and right prisms. |

8.G: Solve Real-World And Mathematical Problems Involving Volume Of Cylinders, Cones, And Spheres. | |

8.G.9 | Know the formulas for the volumes of cones, cylinders, and spheres and use them to solve real-world and mathematical problems. |

Understand And Apply The Pythagorean Theorem. | |

8.G.6 | Explain a proof of the Pythagorean Theorem and its converse. |

8.G.7 | Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to determine unknown side lengths in right triangles in real-world and mathematical problems in two and three dimensions. |

8.G.8 | Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to find the distance between two points in a coordinate system. |

Understand Congruence And Similarity Using Physical Models, Trans- Parencies, Or Geometry Software. | |

8.G.1 | Verify experimentally the properties of rotations, reflections, and translations: |

8.G.1.a | Lines are taken to lines, and line segments to line segments of the same length. |

8.G.1.b | Angles are taken to angles of the same measure. |

8.G.1.c | Parallel lines are taken to parallel lines. |

8.G.2 | Understand that a two-dimensional figure is congruent to another if the second can be obtained from the first by a sequence of rotations, reflections, and translations; given two congruent figures, describe a sequence that exhibits the congruence between them. |

8.G.3 | Describe the effect of dilations, translations, rotations, and reflections on two-dimensional figures using coordinates. |

8.G.4 | Understand that a two-dimensional figure is similar to another if the second can be obtained from the first by a sequence of rotations, reflections, translations, and dilations; given two similar two- dimensional figures, describe a sequence that exhibits the similarity between them. |

8.G.5 | Use informal arguments to establish facts about the angle sum and exterior angle of triangles, about the angles created when parallel lines are cut by a transversal, and the angle-angle criterion for similarity of triangles. For example, arrange three copies of the same triangle so that the sum of the three angles appears to form a line, and give an argument in terms of transversals why this is so. |

K.G: Analyze, Compare, Create, And Compose Shapes. | |

K.G.4 | Analyze and compare two- and three-dimensional shapes, in different sizes and orientations, using informal language to describe their similarities, differences, parts (e.g., number of sides and vertices/“corners”) and other attributes (e.g., having sides of equal length). |

K.G.5 | Model shapes in the world by building shapes from components (e.g., sticks and clay balls) and drawing shapes. |

K.G.6 | Compose simple shapes to form larger shapes. For example, “Can you join these two triangles with full sides touching to make a rectangle?” |

Identify And Describe Shapes (Squares, Circles, Triangles, Rectangles, Hexagons, Cubes, Cones, Cylinders, And Spheres). | |

K.G.1 | Describe objects in the environment using names of shapes, and describe the relative positions of these objects using terms such as above, below, beside, in front of, behind, and next to. |

K.G.2 | Correctly name shapes regardless of their orientations or overall size. |

K.G.3 | Identify shapes as two-dimensional (lying in a plane, “flat”) or three- dimensional (“solid”). |

## Operations And Algebraic Thinking | |

1.OA: Add And Subtract Within 20. | |

1.OA.5 | Relate counting to addition and subtraction (e.g., by counting on 2 to add 2). |

1.OA.6 | Add and subtract within 20, demonstrating fluency for addition and subtraction within 10. Use strategies such as counting on; making ten (e.g., 8 + 6 = 8 + 2 + 4 = 10 + 4 = 14); decomposing a number leading to a ten (e.g., 13 – 4 = 13 – 3 – 1 = 10 – 1 = 9); using the relationship between addition and subtraction (e.g., knowing that 8 + 4 = 12, one knows 12 – 8 = 4); and creating equivalent but easier or known sums (e.g., adding 6 + 7 by creating the known equivalent 6 + 6 + 1 = 12 + 1 = 13). |

Represent And Solve Problems Involving Addition And Subtraction. | |

1.OA.1 | Use addition and subtraction within 20 to solve word problems involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and comparing, with unknowns in all positions, e.g., by using objects, drawings, and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.2 |

1.OA.2 | Solve word problems that call for addition of three whole numbers whose sum is less than or equal to 20, e.g., by using objects, drawings, and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem. |

Understand And Apply Properties Of Operations And The Relationship Between Addition And Subtraction. | |

1.OA.3 | Apply properties of operations as strategies to add and subtract.3 Examples: If 8 + 3 = 11 is known, then 3 + 8 = 11 is also known. (Commutative property of addition.) To add 2 + 6 + 4, the second two numbers can be added to make a ten, so 2 + 6 + 4 = 2 + 10 = 12. (Associative property of addition.) |

1.OA.4 | Understand subtraction as an unknown-addend problem. For example, subtract 10 – 8 by finding the number that makes 10 when added to 8. |

Work With Addition And Subtraction Equations. | |

1.OA.7 | Understand the meaning of the equal sign, and determine if equations involving addition and subtraction are true or false. For example, which of the following equations are true and which are false? 6 = 6, 7 = 8 – 1, 5 + 2 = 2 + 5, 4 + 1 = 5 + 2. |

1.OA.8 | Determine the unknown whole number in an addition or subtraction equation relating three whole numbers. For example, determine the unknown number that makes the equation true in each of the equations 8 + ? = 11, 5 = � – 3, 6 + 6 = �. |

2.OA: Add And Subtract Within 20. | |

2.OA.2 | Fluently add and subtract within 20 using mental strategies.2 By end of Grade 2, know from memory all sums of two one-digit numbers. |

Represent And Solve Problems Involving Addition And Subtraction. | |

2.OA.1 | Use addition and subtraction within 100 to solve one- and two-step word problems involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and comparing, with unknowns in all positions, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.1 |

Work With Equal Groups Of Objects To Gain Foundations For Multiplication. | |

2.OA.3 | Determine whether a group of objects (up to 20) has an odd or even number of members, e.g., by pairing objects or counting them by 2s; write an equation to express an even number as a sum of two equal addends. |

2.OA.4 | Use addition to find the total number of objects arranged in rectangular arrays with up to 5 rows and up to 5 columns; write an equation to express the total as a sum of equal addends. |

3.OA: Multiply And Divide Within 100. | |

3.OA.7 | Fluently multiply and divide within 100, using strategies such as the relationship between multiplication and division (e.g., knowing that 8 × 5 = 40, one knows 40 ÷ 5 = 8) or properties of operations. By the end of Grade 3, know from memory all products of two one-digit numbers. |

Represent And Solve Problems Involving Multiplication And Division. | |

3.OA.1 | Interpret products of whole numbers, e.g., interpret 5 × 7 as the total number of objects in 5 groups of 7 objects each. For example, describe a context in which a total number of objects can be expressed as 5 × 7. |

3.OA.2 | Interpret whole-number quotients of whole numbers, e.g., interpret 56 ÷ 8 as the number of objects in each share when 56 objects are partitioned equally into 8 shares, or as a number of shares when 56 objects are partitioned into equal shares of 8 objects each. For example, describe a context in which a number of shares or a number of groups can be expressed as 56 ÷ 8. |

3.OA.3 | Use multiplication and division within 100 to solve word problems in situations involving equal groups, arrays, and measurement quantities, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.1 |

3.OA.4 | Determine the unknown whole number in a multiplication or division equation relating three whole numbers. For example, determine the unknown number that makes the equation true in each of the equations 8 × ? = 48, 5 = � ÷ 3, 6 × 6 = ?. |

Solve Problems Involving The Four Operations, And Identify And Explain Patterns In Arithmetic. | |

3.OA.8 | Solve two-step word problems using the four operations. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies including rounding.3 |

3.OA.9 | Identify arithmetic patterns (including patterns in the addition table or multiplication table), and explain them using properties of operations. For example, observe that 4 times a number is always even, and explain why 4 times a number can be decomposed into two equal addends. |

Understand Properties Of Multiplication And The Relationship Between Multiplication And Division. | |

3.OA.5 | Apply properties of operations as strategies to multiply and divide.2 Examples: If 6 × 4 = 24 is known, then 4 × 6 = 24 is also known. (Commutative property of multiplication.) 3 × 5 × 2 can be found by 3 × 5 = 15, then 15 × 2 = 30, or by 5 × 2 = 10, then 3 × 10 = 30. (Associative property of multiplication.) Knowing that 8 × 5 = 40 and 8 × 2 = 16, one can find 8 × 7 as 8 × (5 + 2) = (8 × 5) + (8 × 2) = 40 + 16 = 56. (Distributive property.) |

3.OA.6 | Understand division as an unknown-factor problem. For example, find 32 ÷ 8 by finding the number that makes 32 when multiplied by 8. |

4.OA: Gain Familiarity With Factors And Multiples. | |

4.OA.4 | Find all factor pairs for a whole number in the range 1–100. Recognize that a whole number is a multiple of each of its factors. Determine whether a given whole number in the range 1–100 is a multiple of a given one-digit number. Determine whether a given whole number in the range 1–100 is prime or composite. |

Generate And Analyze Patterns. | |

4.OA.5 | Generate a number or shape pattern that follows a given rule. Identify apparent features of the pattern that were not explicit in the rule itself. For example, given the rule “Add 3” and the starting number 1, generate terms in the resulting sequence and observe that the terms appear to alternate between odd and even numbers. Explain informally why the numbers will continue to alternate in this way. |

Use The Four Operations With Whole Numbers To Solve Problems. | |

4.OA.1 | Interpret a multiplication equation as a comparison, e.g., interpret 35 = 5 × 7 as a statement that 35 is 5 times as many as 7 and 7 times as many as 5. Represent verbal statements of multiplicative comparisons as multiplication equations. |

4.OA.2 | Multiply or divide to solve word problems involving multiplicative comparison, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem, distinguishing multiplicative comparison from additive comparison.1 |

4.OA.3 | Solve multistep word problems posed with whole numbers and having whole-number answers using the four operations, including problems in which remainders must be interpreted. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies including rounding. |

5.OA: Analyze Patterns And Relationships. | |

5.OA.3 | Generate two numerical patterns using two given rules. Identify apparent relationships between corresponding terms. Form ordered pairs consisting of corresponding terms from the two patterns, and graph the ordered pairs on a coordinate plane. For example, given the rule “Add 3” and the starting number 0, and given the rule “Add 6” and the starting number 0, generate terms in the resulting sequences, and observe that the terms in one sequence are twice the corresponding terms in the other sequence. Explain informally why this is so. |

Write And Interpret Numerical Expressions. | |

5.OA.1 | Use parentheses, brackets, or braces in numerical expressions, and evaluate expressions with these symbols. |

5.OA.2 | Write simple expressions that record calculations with numbers, and interpret numerical expressions without evaluating them. For example, express the calculation “add 8 and 7, then multiply by 2” as 2 × (8 + 7). Recognize that 3 × (18932 + 921) is three times as large as 18932 + 921, without having to calculate the indicated sum or product. |

K.OA: Understand Addition As Putting Together And Adding To, And Under- Stand Subtraction As Taking Apart And Taking From. | |

K.OA.1 | Represent addition and subtraction with objects, fingers, mental images, drawings2, sounds (e.g., claps), acting out situations, verbal explanations, expressions, or equations. |

K.OA.2 | Solve addition and subtraction word problems, and add and subtract within 10, e.g., by using objects or drawings to represent the problem. |

K.OA.3 | Decompose numbers less than or equal to 10 into pairs in more than one way, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record each decomposition by a drawing or equation (e.g., 5 = 2 + 3 and 5 = 4 + 1). |

K.OA.4 | For any number from 1 to 9, find the number that makes 10 when added to the given number, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record the answer with a drawing or equation. |

K.OA.5 | Fluently add and subtract within 5. |

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