Flocabulary
 vocabulary
 music
 rhythm
 letter or word recognition
 naming
 vocabulary
 literature
 division
 geometry
 measurement
 multiplication
 addition
 statistics
 subtraction
 algebra
 biology
 chemistry
 ecosystems
 engineering
 geology
 gravity
 life cycle
 motion
 physics
 animals
 astronomy
 citizenship
 cultural understanding
 events
 exploration
 geography
 global awareness
 government
 historical figures
 history
 power structures
 mental health
 listening
 applying information
 memorization
Pros
Smart songs are helpful and catchy; they hit all the right spots to satisfy both teachers and students.Cons
Some subject areas are lighter on content than others, but new material is added regularly.Bottom Line
Flocabulary has the goods: It's savvy enough to keep kids focused, and teachers will be tapping their toes to see that this unorthodox learning method actually works.Teacher dashboard and quizzes are included with full school access. Individual teacher subscriptions include lesson plans and printable activities.
Graphite Expert Review
Learning Scores
Often irreverent and funny, these superentertaining songs and videos will keep kids' attention. Don't worry: The songs about serious subjects are treated respectfully as well.
Each song is packed with educational info, from simple math ("5 and 6 in the Mix") to heavy lit ("The Pit and the Pendulum"). As kids learn to listen for details, they can become more focused.
Flocabulary offers a pretty solid support system. Teachers can search by subject and Common Core State Standard. Each song has a sidebar with extras like lesson plans and quizzes, and their tech support page covers all the basic problems.
Schoolhouse Rock meets Tupac with Flocabulary, an online platform that delivers educational hiphop songs and videos for kids in grades K8. Flocabulary covers math, vocabulary, language arts, and science, and offers a weekly news update, The Week in Rap. Each subject features a series of songs, clickable lyrics with more information, activities, and more. Skeptics might say, “Why can't kids just learn the oldfashioned way?” Yeah, we know, but Flocabulary has a ton of legit research behind it, and their indepth approach to really morphing hiphop beats with lasting learning is sound.
Read More Read LessOne of Flocabulary's best qualities is that the songs sound like real rap songs, not an embarrassing facsimile that's obviously for educational purposes. The backing beats and samples are catchy and memorable, and videos contain a fun combo of stock footage, original animation, and, for The Week in Rap, current news clips. You might think you're listening to Lil' Wayne when you hear “Would You Drop It?”  a song about nuclear war. Also, the lyrics don't dumb down topics but also speak directly to a young audience.
The downsides to Flocabulary are pretty limited. Lyrics are occasionally kind of stilted, but this happens in real rap songs, too. Teachers should know that, as in the real rap world, some songs contain light questionable language. Example: In "Big Ballin' in the Gilded Age," a song about labor tycoons of the early 20^{th} century, lyrics include "I'm bigger than Big Pimpin', I'm bigger than JayZ ... I'm a real hustler puttin' trains on tracks." Kids probably won't bat an eye, but it's something to just check on beforehand.
Read More Read LessHow will kids learn? By listening to media that they actually enjoy, the lessons within the songs should sink in quite nicely. Flocabulary tucks some vocab lessons into a totally entertaining song about a lost cat named “Biggie”; while kids get sucked into the tale, they'll subtly learn about opposites and some word definitions. Awesome! Songs for older kids are denser, with nearly each rhyme containing some hard facts that they can be quizzed on afterward.
The individual teacher subscription gives access to the videos, lessons, activities, and CCSS correlations. The full, wholeschool plan includes quite a bit more, including a teacher dashboard and assignable, automatically scored quizzes. Created by pros committed to education, all Flocabulary content is standardsbased, and they'll even let you know which standards are covered in each song (teacher bonus!).
Editor's note: In the past, Common Sense Education has partnered with Flocabulary. However, Common Sense Graphite's reviews maintain editorial integrity and independence.
Read More Read LessKey Standards Supported
Language  
L.K: Conventions of Standard English  
L.K.2  Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. 
Vocabulary Acquisition and Use  
L.K.4  Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiplemeaning words and phrases based on kindergarten reading and content. 
L.K.5  With guidance and support from adults, explore word relationships and nuances in word meanings. 
L.K.6  Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts. 
L.1: Conventions of Standard English  
L.1.1  Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. 
L.2: Conventions of Standard English  
L.2.1  Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. 
L.3: Conventions of Standard English  
L.3.1  Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. 
Vocabulary Acquisition and Use  
L.3.5  Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships and nuances in word meanings. 
L.4: Conventions of Standard English  
L.4.1  Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. 
Vocabulary Acquisition and Use  
L.4.5  Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings. 
L.5: Conventions of Standard English  
L.5.1  Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. 
Vocabulary acquisition and Use  
L.5.5  Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings. 
L.6: Knowledge of Language  
L.6.3  Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening. 
Vocabulary Acquisition and Use  
L.6.5  Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings. 
L.7: Knowledge of Language  
L.7.3  Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening. 
Vocabulary Acquisition and Use  
L.7.5  Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings. 
L.8: Knowledge of Language  
L.8.3  Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening. 
Vocabulary Acquisition and Use  
L.8.5  Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings. 
Reading Literature  
RL.K: Key Ideas and Details  
RL.K.3  With prompting and support, identify characters, settings, and major events in a story. 
RL.910: Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity  
RL.910.10  By the end of grade 9, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 9–10 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. 
RL.1112: Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity  
RL.1112.10  By the end of grade 11, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 11–CCR text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. 
Writing  
W.6: Production and Distribution of Writing  
W.6.4  Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Gradespecific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.) 
W.7: Production and Distribution of Writing  
W.7.4  Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Gradespecific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.) 
W.8: Production and Distribution of Writing  
W.8.4  Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Gradespecific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.) 
Arithmetic With Polynomials And Rational Expressions  
HSA.APR: Perform Arithmetic Operations On Polynomials  
HSA.APR.1  Understand that polynomials form a system analogous to the integers, namely, they are closed under the operations of addition, subtraction, and multiplication; add, subtract, and multiply polynomials. 
Understand The Relationship Between Zeros And Factors Of Polynomials  
HSA.APR.2  Know and apply the Remainder Theorem: For a polynomial p(x) and a number a, the remainder on division by x – a is p(a), so p(a) = 0 if and only if (x – a) is a factor of p(x). 
HSA.APR.3  Identify zeros of polynomials when suitable factorizations are available, and use the zeros to construct a rough graph of the function defined by the polynomial. 
Use Polynomial Identities To Solve Problems  
HSA.APR.4  Prove polynomial identities and use them to describe numerical relationships. For example, the polynomial identity (x2 + y2)2 = (x2 – y2)2 + (2xy)2 can be used to generate Pythagorean triples. 
HSA.APR.5  (+) Know and apply the Binomial Theorem for the expansion of (x + y)n in powers of x and y for a positive integer n, where x and y are any numbers, with coefficients determined for example by Pascal’s Triangle.1 
Rewrite Rational Expressions  
HSA.APR.6  Rewrite simple rational expressions in different forms; write a(x)/b(x) in the form q(x) + r(x)/b(x), where a(x), b(x), q(x), and r(x) are polynomials with the degree of r(x) less than the degree of b(x), using inspection, long division, or, for the more complicated examples, a computer algebra system. 
HSA.APR.7  (+) Understand that rational expressions form a system analogous to the rational numbers, closed under addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division by a nonzero rational expression; add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational expressions. 
Building Functions  
HSF.BF: Build A Function That Models A Relationship Between Two Quantities  
HSF.BF.1  Write a function that describes a relationship between two quantities. 
HSF.BF.1.a  Determine an explicit expression, a recursive process, or steps for calculation from a context. 
HSF.BF.1.b  Combine standard function types using arithmetic operations. For example, build a function that models the temperature of a cooling body by adding a constant function to a decaying exponential, and relate these functions to the model. 
HSF.BF.1.c  (+) Compose functions. For example, if T(y) is the temperature in the atmosphere as a function of height, and h(t) is the height of a weather balloon as a function of time, then T(h(t)) is the temperature at the location of the weather balloon as a function of time. 
HSF.BF.2  Write arithmetic and geometric sequences both recursively and with an explicit formula, use them to model situations, and translate between the two forms.★ 
Build New Functions From Existing Functions  
HSF.BF.3  Identify the effect on the graph of replacing f(x) by f(x) + k, k f(x), f(kx), and f(x + k) for specific values of k (both positive and negative); find the value of k given the graphs. Experiment with cases and illustrate an explanation of the effects on the graph using technology. Include recognizing even and odd functions from their graphs and algebraic expressions for them. 
HSF.BF.4  Find inverse functions. 
HSF.BF.4.a  Solve an equation of the form f(x) = c for a simple function f that has an inverse and write an expression for the inverse. For example, f(x) =2 x3 or f(x) = (x+1)/(x–1) for x ≠ 1. 
HSF.BF.4.b  (+) Verify by composition that one function is the inverse of another. 
HSF.BF.4.c  (+) Read values of an inverse function from a graph or a table, given that the function has an inverse. 
HSF.BF.4.d  (+) Produce an invertible function from a noninvertible function by restricting the domain. 
HSF.BF.5  (+) Understand the inverse relationship between exponents and logarithms and use this relationship to solve problems involving logarithms and exponents. 
Conditional Probability And The Rules Of Probability  
HSS.CP: Understand Independence And Conditional Probability And Use Them To Interpret Data  
HSS.CP.1  Describe events as subsets of a sample space (the set of outcomes) using characteristics (or categories) of the outcomes, or as unions, intersections, or complements of other events (“or,” “and,” “not”). 
HSS.CP.2  Understand that two events A and B are independent if the probability of A and B occurring together is the product of their probabilities, and use this characterization to determine if they are independent. 
HSS.CP.3  Understand the conditional probability of A given B as P(A and B)/P(B), and interpret independence of A and B as saying that the conditional probability of A given B is the same as the probability of A, and the conditional probability of B given A is the same as the probability of B. 
HSS.CP.4  Construct and interpret twoway frequency tables of data when two categories are associated with each object being classified. Use the twoway table as a sample space to decide if events are independent and to approximate conditional probabilities. For example, collect data from a random sample of students in your school on their favorite subject among math, science, and English. Estimate the probability that a randomly selected student from your school will favor science given that the student is in tenth grade. Do the same for other subjects and compare the results. 
HSS.CP.5  Recognize and explain the concepts of conditional probability and independence in everyday language and everyday situations. For example, compare the chance of having lung cancer if you are a smoker with the chance of being a smoker if you have lung cancer. 
Use The Rules Of Probability To Compute Probabilities Of Compound Events In A Uniform Probability Model  
HSS.CP.6  Find the conditional probability of A given B as the fraction of B’s outcomes that also belong to A, and interpret the answer in terms of the model. 
HSS.CP.7  Apply the Addition Rule, P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) – P(A and B), and interpret the answer in terms of the model. 
HSS.CP.8  (+) Apply the general Multiplication Rule in a uniform probability model, P(A and B) = P(A)P(BA) = P(B)P(AB), and interpret the answer in terms of the model. 
HSS.CP.9  (+) Use permutations and combinations to compute probabilities of compound events and solve problems. 
Congruence  
HSG.CO: Understand Congruence In Terms Of Rigid Motions  
HSG.CO.6  Use geometric descriptions of rigid motions to transform figures and to predict the effect of a given rigid motion on a given figure; given two figures, use the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions to decide if they are congruent. 
HSG.CO.7  Use the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions to show that two triangles are congruent if and only if corresponding pairs of sides and corresponding pairs of angles are congruent. 
HSG.CO.8  Explain how the criteria for triangle congruence (ASA, SAS, and SSS) follow from the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions. 
Experiment With Transformations In The Plane  
HSG.CO.1  Know precise definitions of angle, circle, perpendicular line, parallel line, and line segment, based on the undefined notions of point, line, distance along a line, and distance around a circular arc. 
HSG.CO.2  Represent transformations in the plane using, e.g., transparencies and geometry software; describe transformations as functions that take points in the plane as inputs and give other points as outputs. Compare transformations that preserve distance and angle to those that do not (e.g., translation versus horizontal stretch). 
HSG.CO.3  Given a rectangle, parallelogram, trapezoid, or regular polygon, describe the rotations and reflections that carry it onto itself. 
HSG.CO.4  Develop definitions of rotations, reflections, and translations in terms of angles, circles, perpendicular lines, parallel lines, and line segments. 
HSG.CO.5  Given a geometric figure and a rotation, reflection, or translation, draw the transformed figure using, e.g., graph paper, tracing paper, or geometry software. Specify a sequence of transformations that will carry a given figure onto another. 
Prove Geometric Theorems  
HSG.CO.9  Prove theorems about lines and angles. Theorems include: vertical angles are congruent; when a transversal crosses parallel lines, alternate interior angles are congruent and corresponding angles are congruent; points on a perpendicular bisector of a line segment are exactly those equidistant from the segment’s endpoints. 
HSG.CO.10  Prove theorems about triangles. Theorems include: measures of interior angles of a triangle sum to 180°; base angles of isosceles triangles are congruent; the segment joining midpoints of two sides of a triangle is parallel to the third side and half the length; the medians of a triangle meet at a point. 
HSG.CO.11  Prove theorems about parallelograms. Theorems include: opposite sides are congruent, opposite angles are congruent, the diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other, and conversely, rectangles are parallelograms with congruent diagonals. 
Make Geometric Constructions  
HSG.CO.12  Make formal geometric constructions with a variety of tools and methods (compass and straightedge, string, reflective devices, paper folding, dynamic geometric software, etc.). Copying a segment; copying an angle; bisecting a segment; bisecting an angle; constructing perpendicular lines, including the perpendicular bisector of a line segment; and constructing a line parallel to a given line through a point not on the line. 
HSG.CO.13  Construct an equilateral triangle, a square, and a regular hexagon inscribed in a circle. 
Expressions And Equations  
6.EE: Apply And Extend Previous Understandings Of Arithmetic To Algebraic Expressions.  
6.EE.1  Write and evaluate numerical expressions involving wholenumber exponents. 
6.EE.2  Write, read, and evaluate expressions in which letters stand for numbers. 
6.EE.2.a  Write expressions that record operations with numbers and with letters standing for numbers. For example, express the calculation “Subtract y from 5” as 5 – y. 
6.EE.2.b  Identify parts of an expression using mathematical terms (sum, term, product, factor, quotient, coefficient); view one or more parts of an expression as a single entity. For example, describe the expression 2 (8 + 7) as a product of two factors; view (8 + 7) as both a single entity and a sum of two terms. 
6.EE.2.c  Evaluate expressions at specific values of their variables. Include expressions that arise from formulas used in realworld problems. Perform arithmetic operations, including those involving whole number exponents, in the conventional order when there are no parentheses to specify a particular order (Order of Operations). For example, use the formulas V = s3 and A = 6 s2 to find the volume and surface area of a cube with sides of length s = 1/2. 
6.EE.3  Apply the properties of operations to generate equivalent expressions. 
6.EE.4  Identify when two expressions are equivalent (i.e., when the two expressions name the same number regardless of which value is substituted into them). For example, the expressions y + y + y and 3y are equivalent because they name the same number regardless of which number y stands for. 
Reason About And Solve OneVariable Equations And Inequalities.  
6.EE.5  Understand solving an equation or inequality as a process of answering a question: which values from a specified set, if any, make the equation or inequality true? Use substitution to determine whether a given number in a specified set makes an equation or inequality true. 
6.EE.6  Use variables to represent numbers and write expressions when solving a realworld or mathematical problem; understand that a variable can represent an unknown number, or, depending on the purpose at hand, any number in a specified set. 
6.EE.7  Solve realworld and mathematical problems by writing and solving equations of the form x + p = q and px = q for cases in which p, q and x are all nonnegative rational numbers. 
6.EE.8  Write an inequality of the form x > c or x < c to represent a constraint or condition in a realworld or mathematical problem. Recognize that inequalities of the form x > c or x < c have infinitely many solutions; represent solutions of such inequalities on number line diagrams. 
Represent And Analyze Quantitative Relationships Between Dependent And Independent Variables.  
6.EE.9  Use variables to represent two quantities in a realworld problem that change in relationship to one another; write an equation to express one quantity, thought of as the dependent variable, in terms of the other quantity, thought of as the independent variable. Analyze the relationship between the dependent and independent variables using graphs and tables, and relate these to the equation. For example, in a problem involving motion at constant speed, list and graph ordered pairs of distances and times, and write the equation d = 65t to represent the relationship between distance and time. 
7.EE: Use Properties Of Operations To Generate Equivalent Expressions.  
7.EE.1  Apply properties of operations as strategies to add, subtract, factor, and expand linear expressions with rational coefficients. 
7.EE.2  Understand that rewriting an expression in different forms in a problem context can shed light on the problem and how the quantities in it are related. For example, a + 0.05a = 1.05a means that “increase by 5%” is the same as “multiply by 1.05.” 
Solve RealLife And Mathematical Problems Using Numerical And Algebraic Expressions And Equations.  
7.EE.3  Solve multistep reallife and mathematical problems posed with positive and negative rational numbers in any form (whole numbers, fractions, and decimals), using tools strategically. Apply properties of operations to calculate with numbers in any form; convert between forms as appropriate; and assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies. For example: If a woman making $25 an hour gets a 10% raise, she will make an additional 1/10 of her salary an hour, or $2.50, for a new salary of $27.50. If you want to place a towel bar 9 3/4 inches long in the center of a door that is 27 1/2 inches wide, you will need to place the bar about 9 inches from each edge; this estimate can be used as a check on the exact computation. 
7.EE.4  Use variables to represent quantities in a realworld or mathematical problem, and construct simple equations and inequalities to solve problems by reasoning about the quantities. 
8.EE: Work With Radicals And Integer Exponents.  
8.EE.1  Know and apply the properties of integer exponents to generate equivalent numerical expressions. For example, 32 × 3–5 = 3–3 = 1/33 = 1/27. 
8.EE.2  Use square root and cube root symbols to represent solutions to equations of the form x2 = p and x3 = p, where p is a positive rational number. Evaluate square roots of small perfect squares and cube roots of small perfect cubes. Know that √2 is irrational. 
8.EE.3  Use numbers expressed in the form of a single digit times an integer power of 10 to estimate very large or very small quantities, and to express how many times as much one is than the other. For example, estimate the population of the United States as 3 × 108 and the population of the world as 7 × 109, and determine that the world population is more than 20 times larger. 
8.EE.4  Perform operations with numbers expressed in scientific notation, including problems where both decimal and scientific notation are used. Use scientific notation and choose units of appropriate size for measurements of very large or very small quantities (e.g., use millimeters per year for seafloor spreading). Interpret scientific notation that has been generated by technology. 
Understand The Connections Between Proportional Relationships, Lines, And Linear Equations.  
8.EE.5  Graph proportional relationships, interpreting the unit rate as the slope of the graph. Compare two different proportional relationships represented in different ways. For example, compare a distancetime graph to a distancetime equation to determine which of two moving objects has greater speed. 
8.EE.6  Use similar triangles to explain why the slope m is the same between any two distinct points on a nonvertical line in the coordinate plane; derive the equation y = mx for a line through the origin and the equation y = mx + b for a line intercepting the vertical axis at b. 
Analyze And Solve Linear Equations And Pairs Of Simultaneous Linear Equations.  
8.EE.7  Solve linear equations in one variable. 
8.EE.7.a  Give examples of linear equations in one variable with one solution, infinitely many solutions, or no solutions. Show which of these possibilities is the case by successively transforming the given equation into simpler forms, until an equivalent equation of the form x = a, a = a, or a = b results (where a and b are different numbers). 
8.EE.7.b  Solve linear equations with rational number coefficients, including equations whose solutions require expanding expressions using the distributive property and collecting like terms. 
8.EE.8  Analyze and solve pairs of simultaneous linear equations. 
8.EE.8.a  Understand that solutions to a system of two linear equations in two variables correspond to points of intersection of their graphs, because points of intersection satisfy both equations simultaneously. 
8.EE.8.b  Solve systems of two linear equations in two variables algebraically, and estimate solutions by graphing the equations. Solve simple cases by inspection. For example, 3x + 2y = 5 and 3x + 2y = 6 have no solution because 3x + 2y cannot simultaneously be 5 and 6. 
8.EE.8.c  Solve realworld and mathematical problems leading to two linear equations in two variables. For example, given coordinates for two pairs of points, determine whether the line through the first pair of points intersects the line through the second pair. 
Geometry  
1.G: Reason With Shapes And Their Attributes.  
1.G.1  Distinguish between defining attributes (e.g., triangles are closed and threesided) versus nondefining attributes (e.g., color, orientation, overall size); build and draw shapes to possess defining attributes. 
2.G: Reason With Shapes And Their Attributes.  
2.G.1  Recognize and draw shapes having specified attributes, such as a given number of angles or a given number of equal faces.5 Identify triangles, quadrilaterals, pentagons, hexagons, and cubes. 
3.G: Reason With Shapes And Their Attributes.  
3.G.1  Understand that shapes in different categories (e.g., rhombuses, rectangles, and others) may share attributes (e.g., having four sides), and that the shared attributes can define a larger category (e.g., quadrilaterals). Recognize rhombuses, rectangles, and squares as examples of quadrilaterals, and draw examples of quadrilaterals that do not belong to any of these subcategories. 
4.G: Draw And Identify Lines And Angles, And Classify Shapes By Properties Of Their Lines And Angles.  
4.G.1  Draw points, lines, line segments, rays, angles (right, acute, obtuse), and perpendicular and parallel lines. Identify these in twodimensional figures. 
5.G: Graph Points On The Coordinate Plane To Solve RealWorld And Mathematical Problems.  
5.G.1  Use a pair of perpendicular number lines, called axes, to define a coordinate system, with the intersection of the lines (the origin) arranged to coincide with the 0 on each line and a given point in the plane located by using an ordered pair of numbers, called its coordinates. Understand that the first number indicates how far to travel from the origin in the direction of one axis, and the second number indicates how far to travel in the direction of the second axis, with the convention that the names of the two axes and the coordinates correspond (e.g., xaxis and xcoordinate, yaxis and ycoordinate). 
5.G.2  Represent real world and mathematical problems by graphing points in the first quadrant of the coordinate plane, and interpret coordinate values of points in the context of the situation. 
6.G: Solve RealWorld And Mathematical Problems Involving Area, Surface Area, And Volume.  
6.G.1  Find the area of right triangles, other triangles, special quadrilaterals, and polygons by composing into rectangles or decomposing into triangles and other shapes; apply these techniques in the context of solving realworld and mathematical problems. 
6.G.2  Find the volume of a right rectangular prism with fractional edge lengths by packing it with unit cubes of the appropriate unit fraction edge lengths, and show that the volume is the same as would be found by multiplying the edge lengths of the prism. Apply the formulas V = l w h and V = b h to find volumes of right rectangular prisms with fractional edge lengths in the context of solving realworld and mathematical problems. 
7.G: Solve RealLife And Mathematical Problems Involving Angle Measure, Area, Surface Area, And Volume.  
7.G.4  Know the formulas for the area and circumference of a circle and use them to solve problems; give an informal derivation of the relationship between the circumference and area of a circle. 
7.G.6  Solve realworld and mathematical problems involving area, volume and surface area of two and threedimensional objects composed of triangles, quadrilaterals, polygons, cubes, and right prisms. 
8.G: Understand And Apply The Pythagorean Theorem.  
8.G.6  Explain a proof of the Pythagorean Theorem and its converse. 
8.G.7  Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to determine unknown side lengths in right triangles in realworld and mathematical problems in two and three dimensions. 
Solve RealWorld And Mathematical Problems Involving Volume Of Cylinders, Cones, And Spheres.  
8.G.9  Know the formulas for the volumes of cones, cylinders, and spheres and use them to solve realworld and mathematical problems. 
Number And Operations In Base Ten  
2.NBT: Understand Place Value.  
2.NBT.1  Understand that the three digits of a threedigit number represent amounts of hundreds, tens, and ones; e.g., 706 equals 7 hundreds, 0 tens, and 6 ones. Understand the following as special cases: 
2.NBT.1.a  100 can be thought of as a bundle of ten tens — called a “hundred.” 
2.NBT.1.b  The numbers 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900 refer to one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine hundreds (and 0 tens and 0 ones). 
2.NBT.2  Count within 1000; skipcount by 5s, 10s, and 100s. 
2.NBT.3  Read and write numbers to 1000 using baseten numerals, number names, and expanded form. 
2.NBT.4  Compare two threedigit numbers based on meanings of the hundreds, tens, and ones digits, using >, =, and < symbols to record the results of comparisons. 
Use Place Value Understanding And Properties Of Operations To Add And Subtract.  
2.NBT.5  Fluently add and subtract within 100 using strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction. 
2.NBT.6  Add up to four twodigit numbers using strategies based on place value and properties of operations. 
2.NBT.7  Add and subtract within 1000, using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method. Understand that in adding or subtracting three digit numbers, one adds or subtracts hundreds and hundreds, tens and tens, ones and ones; and sometimes it is necessary to compose or decompose tens or hundreds. 
2.NBT.8  Mentally add 10 or 100 to a given number 100–900, and mentally subtract 10 or 100 from a given number 100–900. 
2.NBT.9  Explain why addition and subtraction strategies work, using place value and the properties of operations.3 
3.NBT: Use Place Value Understanding And Properties Of Operations To Perform MultiDigit Arithmetic.4  
3.NBT.1  Use place value understanding to round whole numbers to the nearest 10 or 100. 
3.NBT.2  Fluently add and subtract within 1000 using strategies and algorithms based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction. 
3.NBT.3  Multiply onedigit whole numbers by multiples of 10 in the range 10–90 (e.g., 9 × 80, 5 × 60) using strategies based on place value and properties of operations. 
4.NBT: Generalize Place Value Understanding For MultiDigit Whole Numbers.  
4.NBT.1  Recognize that in a multidigit whole number, a digit in one place represents ten times what it represents in the place to its right. For example, recognize that 700 ÷ 70 = 10 by applying concepts of place value and division. 
4.NBT.2  Read and write multidigit whole numbers using baseten numerals, number names, and expanded form. Compare two multidigit numbers based on meanings of the digits in each place, using >, =, and < symbols to record the results of comparisons. 
4.NBT.3  Use place value understanding to round multidigit whole numbers to any place. 
Use Place Value Understanding And Properties Of Operations To Perform MultiDigit Arithmetic.  
4.NBT.4  Fluently add and subtract multidigit whole numbers using the standard algorithm. 
4.NBT.5  Multiply a whole number of up to four digits by a onedigit whole number, and multiply two twodigit numbers, using strategies based on place value and the properties of operations. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models. 
4.NBT.6  Find wholenumber quotients and remainders with up to fourdigit dividends and onedigit divisors, using strategies based on place value, the properties of operations, and/or the relationship between multiplication and division. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models. 
5.NBT: Understand The Place Value System.  
5.NBT.1  Recognize that in a multidigit number, a digit in one place represents 10 times as much as it represents in the place to its right and 1/10 of what it represents in the place to its left. 
5.NBT.2  Explain patterns in the number of zeros of the product when multiplying a number by powers of 10, and explain patterns in the placement of the decimal point when a decimal is multiplied or divided by a power of 10. Use wholenumber exponents to denote powers of 10. 
5.NBT.3  Read, write, and compare decimals to thousandths. 
5.NBT.3.a  Read and write decimals to thousandths using baseten numerals, number names, and expanded form, e.g., 347.392 = 3 × 100 + 4 × 10 + 7 × 1 + 3 × (1/10) + 9 × (1/100) + 2 × (1/1000). 
5.NBT.3.b  Compare two decimals to thousandths based on meanings of the digits in each place, using >, =, and < symbols to record the results of comparisons. 
5.NBT.4  Use place value understanding to round decimals to any place. 
Perform Operations With MultiDigit Whole Numbers And With Decimals To Hundredths.  
5.NBT.5  Fluently multiply multidigit whole numbers using the standard algorithm. 
5.NBT.6  Find wholenumber quotients of whole numbers with up to fourdigit dividends and twodigit divisors, using strategies based on place value, the properties of operations, and/or the relationship between multiplication and division. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models. 
5.NBT.7  Add, subtract, multiply, and divide decimals to hundredths, using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning used. 
Number And Operations—Fractions  
3.NF: Develop Understanding Of Fractions As Numbers.  
3.NF.1  Understand a fraction 1/b as the quantity formed by 1 part when a whole is partitioned into b equal parts; understand a fraction a/b as the quantity formed by a parts of size 1/b. 
3.NF.2  Understand a fraction as a number on the number line; represent fractions on a number line diagram. 
3.NF.2.a  Represent a fraction 1/b on a number line diagram by defining the interval from 0 to 1 as the whole and partitioning it into b equal parts. Recognize that each part has size 1/b and that the endpoint of the part based at 0 locates the number 1/b on the number line. 
3.NF.2.b  Represent a fraction a/b on a number line diagram by marking off a lengths 1/b from 0. Recognize that the resulting interval has size a/b and that its endpoint locates the number a/b on the number line. 
3.NF.3  Explain equivalence of fractions in special cases, and compare fractions by reasoning about their size. 
3.NF.3.a  Understand two fractions as equivalent (equal) if they are the same size, or the same point on a number line. 
3.NF.3.b  Recognize and generate simple equivalent fractions, e.g., 1/2 = 2/4, 4/6 = 2/3). Explain why the fractions are equivalent, e.g., by using a visual fraction model. 
3.NF.3.c  Express whole numbers as fractions, and recognize fractions that are equivalent to whole numbers. Examples: Express 3 in the form 3 = 3/1; recognize that 6/1 = 6; locate 4/4 and 1 at the same point of a number line diagram. 
3.NF.3.d  Compare two fractions with the same numerator or the same denominator by reasoning about their size. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two fractions refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with the symbols >, =, or <, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model. 
4.NF: Extend Understanding Of Fraction Equivalence And Ordering.  
4.NF.1  Explain why a fraction a/b is equivalent to a fraction (n × a)/(n × b) by using visual fraction models, with attention to how the number and size of the parts differ even though the two fractions themselves are the same size. Use this principle to recognize and generate equivalent fractions. 
4.NF.2  Compare two fractions with different numerators and different denominators, e.g., by creating common denominators or numerators, or by comparing to a benchmark fraction such as 1/2. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two fractions refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with symbols >, =, or <, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model. 
Build Fractions From Unit Fractions By Applying And Extending Previous Understandings Of Operations On Whole Numbers.  
4.NF.3  Understand a fraction a/b with a > 1 as a sum of fractions 1/b. a. 
4.NF.3.a  Understand addition and subtraction of fractions as joining and separating parts referring to the same whole. 
4.NF.3.b  Decompose a fraction into a sum of fractions with the same denominator in more than one way, recording each decomposition by an equation. Justify decompositions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model. Examples: 3/8 = 1/8 + 1/8 + 1/8 ; 3/8 = 1/8 + 2/8 ; 2 1/8 = 1 + 1 + 1/8 = 8/8 + 8/8 + 1/8. 
4.NF.3.c  Add and subtract mixed numbers with like denominators, e.g., by replacing each mixed number with an equivalent fraction, and/or by using properties of operations and the relationship between addition and subtraction. 
4.NF.3.d  Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions referring to the same whole and having like denominators, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem. 
4.NF.4  Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication to multiply a fraction by a whole number. 
4.NF.4.a  Understand a fraction a/b as a multiple of 1/b. For example, use a visual fraction model to represent 5/4 as the product 5 × (1/4), recording the conclusion by the equation 5/4 = 5 × (1/4). 
4.NF.4.b  Understand a multiple of a/b as a multiple of 1/b, and use this understanding to multiply a fraction by a whole number. For example, use a visual fraction model to express 3 × (2/5) as 6 × (1/5), recognizing this product as 6/5. (In general, n × (a/b) = (n × a)/b.) 
4.NF.4.c  Solve word problems involving multiplication of a fraction by a whole number, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem. For example, if each person at a party will eat 3/8 of a pound of roast beef, and there will be 5 people at the party, how many pounds of roast beef will be needed? Between what two whole numbers does your answer lie? 
Understand Decimal Notation For Fractions, And Compare Decimal Fractions.  
4.NF.5  Express a fraction with denominator 10 as an equivalent fraction with denominator 100, and use this technique to add two fractions with respective denominators 10 and 100.4 For example, express 3/10 as 30/100, and add 3/10 + 4/100 = 34/100. 
4.NF.6  Use decimal notation for fractions with denominators 10 or 100. For example, rewrite 0.62 as 62/100; describe a length as 0.62 meters; locate 0.62 on a number line diagram. 
4.NF.7  Compare two decimals to hundredths by reasoning about their size. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two decimals refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with the symbols >, =, or <, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual model. 
5.NF: Use Equivalent Fractions As A Strategy To Add And Subtract Fractions.  
5.NF.1  Add and subtract fractions with unlike denominators (including mixed numbers) by replacing given fractions with equivalent fractions in such a way as to produce an equivalent sum or difference of fractions with like denominators. For example, 2/3 + 5/4 = 8/12 + 15/12 = 23/12. (In general, a/b + c/d = (ad + bc)/bd.) 
5.NF.2  Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions referring to the same whole, including cases of unlike denominators, e.g., by using visual fraction models or equations to represent the problem. Use benchmark fractions and number sense of fractions 
Apply And Extend Previous Understandings Of Multiplication And Division To Multiply And Divide Fractions.  
5.NF.3  Interpret a fraction as division of the numerator by the denominator (a/b = a ÷ b). Solve word problems involving division of whole numbers leading to answers in the form of fractions or mixed numbers, e.g., by using visual fraction models or equations to represent the problem. For example, interpret 3/4 as the result of dividing 3 by 4, noting that 3/4 multiplied by 4 equals 3, and that when 3 wholes are shared equally among 4 people each person has a share of size 3/4. If 9 people want to share a 50pound sack of rice equally by weight, how many pounds of rice should each person get? Between what two whole numbers does your answer lie? 
5.NF.4  Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication to multiply a fraction or whole number by a fraction. 
5.NF.4.a  Interpret the product (a/b) × q as a parts of a partition of q into b equal parts; equivalently, as the result of a sequence of operations a × q ÷ b. For example, use a visual fraction model to show (2/3) × 4 = 8/3, and create a story context for this equation. Do the same with (2/3) × (4/5) = 8/15. (In general, (a/b) × (c/d) = ac/bd.) 
5.NF.4.b  Find the area of a rectangle with fractional side lengths by tiling it with unit squares of the appropriate unit fraction side lengths, and show that the area is the same as would be found by multiplying the side lengths. Multiply fractional side lengths to find areas of rectangles, and represent fraction products as rectangular areas. 
5.NF.5  Interpret multiplication as scaling (resizing), by: 
5.NF.5.a  Comparing the size of a product to the size of one factor on the basis of the size of the other factor, without performing the indicated multiplication. 
5.NF.5.b  Explaining why multiplying a given number by a fraction greater than 1 results in a product greater than the given number (recognizing multiplication by whole numbers greater than 1 as a familiar case); explaining why multiplying a given number by a fraction less than 1 results in a product smaller than the given number; and relating the principle of fraction equivalence a/b = (n×a)/(n×b) to the effect of multiplying a/b by 1. 
5.NF.6  Solve real world problems involving multiplication of fractions and mixed numbers, e.g., by using visual fraction models or equations to represent the problem. 
5.NF.7  Apply and extend previous understandings of division to divide unit fractions by whole numbers and whole numbers by unit fractions.1 
5.NF.7.a  Interpret division of a unit fraction by a nonzero whole number, and compute such quotients. For example, create a story context for (1/3) ÷ 4, and use a visual fraction model to show the quotient. Use the relationship between multiplication and division to explain that (1/3) ÷ 4 = 1/12 because (1/12) × 4 = 1/3. 
5.NF.7.b  Interpret division of a whole number by a unit fraction, and compute such quotients. For example, create a story context for 4 ÷ (1/5), and use a visual fraction model to show the quotient. Use the relationship between multiplication and division to explain that 4 ÷ (1/5) = 20 because 20 × (1/5) = 4. 
5.NF.7.c  Solve real world problems involving division of unit fractions by nonzero whole numbers and division of whole numbers by unit fractions, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem. For example, how much chocolate will each person get if 3 people share 1/2 lb of chocolate equally? How many 1/3cup servings are in 2 cups of raisins? 
Operations And Algebraic Thinking  
K.OA: Understand Addition As Putting Together And Adding To, And Under Stand Subtraction As Taking Apart And Taking From.  
K.OA.2  Solve addition and subtraction word problems, and add and subtract within 10, e.g., by using objects or drawings to represent the problem. 
K.OA.3  Decompose numbers less than or equal to 10 into pairs in more than one way, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record each decomposition by a drawing or equation (e.g., 5 = 2 + 3 and 5 = 4 + 1). 
K.OA.5  Fluently add and subtract within 5. 
1.OA: Represent And Solve Problems Involving Addition And Subtraction.  
1.OA.1  Use addition and subtraction within 20 to solve word problems involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and comparing, with unknowns in all positions, e.g., by using objects, drawings, and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.2 
Add And Subtract Within 20.  
1.OA.6  Add and subtract within 20, demonstrating fluency for addition and subtraction within 10. Use strategies such as counting on; making ten (e.g., 8 + 6 = 8 + 2 + 4 = 10 + 4 = 14); decomposing a number leading to a ten (e.g., 13 – 4 = 13 – 3 – 1 = 10 – 1 = 9); using the relationship between addition and subtraction (e.g., knowing that 8 + 4 = 12, one knows 12 – 8 = 4); and creating equivalent but easier or known sums (e.g., adding 6 + 7 by creating the known equivalent 6 + 6 + 1 = 12 + 1 = 13). 
2.OA: Represent And Solve Problems Involving Addition And Subtraction.  
2.OA.1  Use addition and subtraction within 100 to solve one and twostep word problems involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and comparing, with unknowns in all positions, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.1 
Add And Subtract Within 20.  
2.OA.2  Fluently add and subtract within 20 using mental strategies.2 By end of Grade 2, know from memory all sums of two onedigit numbers. 
Work With Equal Groups Of Objects To Gain Foundations For Multiplication.  
2.OA.3  Determine whether a group of objects (up to 20) has an odd or even number of members, e.g., by pairing objects or counting them by 2s; write an equation to express an even number as a sum of two equal addends. 
2.OA.4  Use addition to find the total number of objects arranged in rectangular arrays with up to 5 rows and up to 5 columns; write an equation to express the total as a sum of equal addends. 
3.OA: Represent And Solve Problems Involving Multiplication And Division.  
3.OA.1  Interpret products of whole numbers, e.g., interpret 5 × 7 as the total number of objects in 5 groups of 7 objects each. For example, describe a context in which a total number of objects can be expressed as 5 × 7. 
3.OA.2  Interpret wholenumber quotients of whole numbers, e.g., interpret 56 ÷ 8 as the number of objects in each share when 56 objects are partitioned equally into 8 shares, or as a number of shares when 56 objects are partitioned into equal shares of 8 objects each. For example, describe a context in which a number of shares or a number of groups can be expressed as 56 ÷ 8. 
3.OA.3  Use multiplication and division within 100 to solve word problems in situations involving equal groups, arrays, and measurement quantities, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.1 
3.OA.4  Determine the unknown whole number in a multiplication or division equation relating three whole numbers. For example, determine the unknown number that makes the equation true in each of the equations 8 × ? = 48, 5 = � ÷ 3, 6 × 6 = ?. 
Understand Properties Of Multiplication And The Relationship Between Multiplication And Division.  
3.OA.5  Apply properties of operations as strategies to multiply and divide.2 Examples: If 6 × 4 = 24 is known, then 4 × 6 = 24 is also known. (Commutative property of multiplication.) 3 × 5 × 2 can be found by 3 × 5 = 15, then 15 × 2 = 30, or by 5 × 2 = 10, then 3 × 10 = 30. (Associative property of multiplication.) Knowing that 8 × 5 = 40 and 8 × 2 = 16, one can find 8 × 7 as 8 × (5 + 2) = (8 × 5) + (8 × 2) = 40 + 16 = 56. (Distributive property.) 
3.OA.6  Understand division as an unknownfactor problem. For example, find 32 ÷ 8 by finding the number that makes 32 when multiplied by 8. 
Multiply And Divide Within 100.  
3.OA.7  Fluently multiply and divide within 100, using strategies such as the relationship between multiplication and division (e.g., knowing that 8 × 5 = 40, one knows 40 ÷ 5 = 8) or properties of operations. By the end of Grade 3, know from memory all products of two onedigit numbers. 
Solve Problems Involving The Four Operations, And Identify And Explain Patterns In Arithmetic.  
3.OA.8  Solve twostep word problems using the four operations. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies including rounding.3 
3.OA.9  Identify arithmetic patterns (including patterns in the addition table or multiplication table), and explain them using properties of operations. For example, observe that 4 times a number is always even, and explain why 4 times a number can be decomposed into two equal addends. 
4.OA: Use The Four Operations With Whole Numbers To Solve Problems.  
4.OA.1  Interpret a multiplication equation as a comparison, e.g., interpret 35 = 5 × 7 as a statement that 35 is 5 times as many as 7 and 7 times as many as 5. Represent verbal statements of multiplicative comparisons as multiplication equations. 
4.OA.2  Multiply or divide to solve word problems involving multiplicative comparison, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem, distinguishing multiplicative comparison from additive comparison.1 
4.OA.3  Solve multistep word problems posed with whole numbers and having wholenumber answers using the four operations, including problems in which remainders must be interpreted. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies including rounding. 
Gain Familiarity With Factors And Multiples.  
4.OA.4  Find all factor pairs for a whole number in the range 1–100. Recognize that a whole number is a multiple of each of its factors. Determine whether a given whole number in the range 1–100 is a multiple of a given onedigit number. Determine whether a given whole number in the range 1–100 is prime or composite. 
Generate And Analyze Patterns.  
4.OA.5  Generate a number or shape pattern that follows a given rule. Identify apparent features of the pattern that were not explicit in the rule itself. For example, given the rule “Add 3” and the starting number 1, generate terms in the resulting sequence and observe that the terms appear to alternate between odd and even numbers. Explain informally why the numbers will continue to alternate in this way. 
5.OA: Write And Interpret Numerical Expressions.  
5.OA.1  Use parentheses, brackets, or braces in numerical expressions, and evaluate expressions with these symbols. 
5.OA.2  Write simple expressions that record calculations with numbers, and interpret numerical expressions without evaluating them. For example, express the calculation “add 8 and 7, then multiply by 2” as 2 × (8 + 7). Recognize that 3 × (18932 + 921) is three times as large as 18932 + 921, without having to calculate the indicated sum or product. 
Analyze Patterns And Relationships.  
5.OA.3  Generate two numerical patterns using two given rules. Identify apparent relationships between corresponding terms. Form ordered pairs consisting of corresponding terms from the two patterns, and graph the ordered pairs on a coordinate plane. For example, given the rule “Add 3” and the starting number 0, and given the rule “Add 6” and the starting number 0, generate terms in the resulting sequences, and observe that the terms in one sequence are twice the corresponding terms in the other sequence. Explain informally why this is so. 
Statistics And Probability  
6.SP: Develop Understanding Of Statistical Variability.  
6.SP.1  Recognize a statistical question as one that anticipates variability in the data related to the question and accounts for it in the answers. For example, “How old am I?” is not a statistical question, but “How old are the students in my school?” is a statistical question because one anticipates variability in students’ ages. 
6.SP.2  Understand that a set of data collected to answer a statistical question has a distribution which can be described by its center, spread, and overall shape. 
6.SP.3  Recognize that a measure of center for a numerical data set summarizes all of its values with a single number, while a measure of variation describes how its values vary with a single number. 
Summarize And Describe Distributions.  
6.SP.4  Display numerical data in plots on a number line, including dot plots, histograms, and box plots. 
6.SP.5  Summarize numerical data sets in relation to their context, such as by: 
6.SP.5.a  Reporting the number of observations. 
6.SP.5.b  Describing the nature of the attribute under investigation, including how it was measured and its units of measurement. 
6.SP.5.c  Giving quantitative measures of center (median and/or mean) and variability (interquartile range and/or mean absolute deviation), as well as describing any overall pattern and any striking deviations from the overall pattern with reference to the context in which the data were gathered. 
6.SP.5.d  Relating the choice of measures of center and variability to the shape of the data distribution and the context in which the data were gathered. 
7.SP: Use Random Sampling To Draw Inferences About A Population.  
7.SP.1  Understand that statistics can be used to gain information about a population by examining a sample of the population; generalizations about a population from a sample are valid only if the sample is representative of that population. Understand that random sampling tends to produce representative samples and support valid inferences. 
7.SP.2  Use data from a random sample to draw inferences about a population with an unknown characteristic of interest. Generate multiple samples (or simulated samples) of the same size to gauge the variation in estimates or predictions. For example, estimate the mean word length in a book by randomly sampling words from the book; predict the winner of a school election based on randomly sampled survey data. Gauge how far off the estimate or prediction might be. 
Draw Informal Comparative Inferences About Two Populations.  
7.SP.3  Informally assess the degree of visual overlap of two numerical data distributions with similar variabilities, measuring the difference between the centers by expressing it as a multiple of a measure of variability. For example, the mean height of players on the basketball team is 10 cm greater than the mean height of players on the soccer team, about twice the variability (mean absolute deviation) on either team; on a dot plot, the separation between the two distributions of heights is noticeable. 
7.SP.4  Use measures of center and measures of variability for numerical data from random samples to draw informal comparative inferences about two populations. For example, decide whether the words in a chapter of a seventhgrade science book are generally longer than the words in a chapter of a fourthgrade science book. 
Investigate Chance Processes And Develop, Use, And Evaluate Probability Models.  
7.SP.5  Understand that the probability of a chance event is a number between 0 and 1 that expresses the likelihood of the event occurring. Larger numbers indicate greater likelihood. A probability near 0 indicates an unlikely event, a probability around 1/2 indicates an event that is neither unlikely nor likely, and a probability near 1 indicates a likely event. 
7.SP.6  Approximate the probability of a chance event by collecting data on the chance process that produces it and observing its longrun relative frequency, and predict the approximate relative frequency given the probability. For example, when rolling a number cube 600 times, predict that a 3 or 6 would be rolled roughly 200 times, but probably not exactly 200 times. 
7.SP.7  Develop a probability model and use it to find probabilities of events. Compare probabilities from a model to observed frequencies; if the agreement is not good, explain possible sources of the discrepancy. 
7.SP.7.a  Develop a uniform probability model by assigning equal probability to all outcomes, and use the model to determine probabilities of events. For example, if a student is selected at random from a class, find the probability that Jane will be selected and the probability that a girl will be selected. 
7.SP.7.b  Develop a probability model (which may not be uniform) by observing frequencies in data generated from a chance process. For example, find the approximate probability that a spinning penny will land heads up or that a tossed paper cup will land openend down. Do the outcomes for the spinning penny appear to be equally likely based on the observed frequencies? 
7.SP.8  Find probabilities of compound events using organized lists, tables, tree diagrams, and simulation. 
7.SP.8.a  Understand that, just as with simple events, the probability of a compound event is the fraction of outcomes in the sample space for which the compound event occurs. 
7.SP.8.b  Represent sample spaces for compound events using methods such as organized lists, tables and tree diagrams. For an event described in everyday language (e.g., “rolling double sixes”), identify the outcomes in the sample space which compose the event. 
7.SP.8.c  Design and use a simulation to generate frequencies for compound events. For example, use random digits as a simulation tool to approximate the answer to the question: If 40% of donors have type A blood, what is the probability that it will take at least 4 donors to find one with type A blood? 
8.SP: Investigate Patterns Of Association In Bivariate Data.  
8.SP.1  Construct and interpret scatter plots for bivariate measurement data to investigate patterns of association between two quantities. Describe patterns such as clustering, outliers, positive or negative association, linear association, and nonlinear association. 
8.SP.2  Know that straight lines are widely used to model relationships between two quantitative variables. For scatter plots that suggest a linear association, informally fit a straight line, and informally assess the model fit by judging the closeness of the data points to the line. 
8.SP.3  Use the equation of a linear model to solve problems in the context of bivariate measurement data, interpreting the slope and intercept. For example, in a linear model for a biology experiment, interpret a slope of 1.5 cm/hr as meaning that an additional hour of sunlight each day is associated with an additional 1.5 cm in mature plant height. 
8.SP.4  Understand that patterns of association can also be seen in bivariate categorical data by displaying frequencies and relative frequencies in a twoway table. Construct and interpret a twoway table summarizing data on two categorical variables collected from the same subjects. Use relative frequencies calculated for rows or columns to describe possible association between the two variables. For example, collect data from students in your class on whether or not they have a curfew on school nights and whether or not they have assigned chores at home. Is there evidence that those who have a curfew also tend to have chores? 
The Number System  
6.NS: Compute Fluently With MultiDigit Numbers And Find Common Factors And Multiples.  
6.NS.2  Fluently divide multidigit numbers using the standard algorithm. 
6.NS.3  Fluently add, subtract, multiply, and divide multidigit decimals using the standard algorithm for each operation. 
6.NS.4  Find the greatest common factor of two whole numbers less than or equal to 100 and the least common multiple of two whole numbers less than or equal to 12. Use the distributive property to express a sum of two whole numbers 1–100 with a common factor as a multiple of a sum of two whole numbers with no common factor. For example, express 36 + 8 as 4 (9 + 2). 
Apply And Extend Previous Understandings Of Numbers To The System Of Rational Numbers.  
6.NS.5  Understand that positive and negative numbers are used together to describe quantities having opposite directions or values (e.g., temperature above/below zero, elevation above/below sea level, credits/debits, positive/negative electric charge); use positive and negative numbers to represent quantities in realworld contexts, explaining the meaning of 0 in each situation. 
6.NS.6  Understand a rational number as a point on the number line. Extend number line diagrams and coordinate axes familiar from previous grades to represent points on the line and in the plane with negative number coordinates. 
6.NS.6.a  Recognize opposite signs of numbers as indicating locations on opposite sides of 0 on the number line; recognize that the opposite of the opposite of a number is the number itself, e.g., –(–3) = 3, and that 0 is its own opposite. 
6.NS.6.b  Understand signs of numbers in ordered pairs as indicating locations in quadrants of the coordinate plane; recognize that when two ordered pairs differ only by signs, the locations of the points are related by reflections across one or both axes. 
6.NS.6.c  Find and position integers and other rational numbers on a horizontal or vertical number line diagram; find and position pairs of integers and other rational numbers on a coordinate plane. 
6.NS.7  Understand ordering and absolute value of rational numbers. 
6.NS.7.a  Interpret statements of inequality as statements about the relative position of two numbers on a number line diagram. For example, interpret –3 > –7 as a statement that –3 is located to the right of –7 on a number line oriented from left to right. 
6.NS.7.b  Write, interpret, and explain statements of order for rational numbers in realworld contexts. For example, write –3 oC > –7 oC to express the fact that –3 oC is warmer than –7 oC. 
6.NS.7.c  Understand the absolute value of a rational number as its distance from 0 on the number line; interpret absolute value as magnitude for a positive or negative quantity in a realworld situation. For example, for an account balance of –30 dollars, write –30 = 30 to describe the size of the debt in dollars. 
6.NS.7.d  Distinguish comparisons of absolute value from statements about order. For example, recognize that an account balance less than –30 dollars represents a debt greater than 30 dollars. 
6.NS.8  Solve realworld and mathematical problems by graphing points in all four quadrants of the coordinate plane. Include use of coordinates and absolute value to find distances between points with the same first coordinate or the same second coordinate. 
Apply And Extend Previous Understandings Of Multiplication And Division To Divide Fractions By Fractions.  
6.NS.1  Interpret and compute quotients of fractions, and solve word problems involving division of fractions by fractions, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem. For example, create a story context for (2/3) ÷ (3/4) and use a visual fraction model to show the quotient; use the relationship between multiplication and division to explain that (2/3) ÷ (3/4) = 8/9 because 3/4 of 8/9 is 2/3. (In general, (a/b) ÷ (c/d) = ad/bc.) How much chocolate will each person get if 3 people share 1/2 lb of chocolate equally? How many 3/4cup servings are in 2/3 of a cup of yogurt? How wide is a rectangular strip of land with length 3/4 mi and area 1/2 square mi? 
7.NS: Apply And Extend Previous Understandings Of Operations With Fractions To Add, Subtract, Multiply, And Divide Rational Numbers.  
7.NS.1  Apply and extend previous understandings of addition and subtraction to add and subtract rational numbers; represent addition and subtraction on a horizontal or vertical number line diagram. 
7.NS.1.a  Describe situations in which opposite quantities combine to make 0. For example, a hydrogen atom has 0 charge because its two constituents are oppositely charged. 
7.NS.1.b  Understand p + q as the number located a distance q from p, in the positive or negative direction depending on whether q is positive or negative. Show that a number and its opposite have a sum of 0 (are additive inverses). Interpret sums of rational numbers by describing realworld contexts. 
7.NS.1.c  Understand subtraction of rational numbers as adding the additive inverse, p – q = p + (–q). Show that the distance between two rational numbers on the number line is the absolute value of their difference, and apply this principle in realworld contexts. 
7.NS.1.d  Apply properties of operations as strategies to add and subtract rational numbers. 
7.NS.2  Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division and of fractions to multiply and divide rational numbers. 
7.NS.2.a  Understand that multiplication is extended from fractions to rational numbers by requiring that operations continue to satisfy the properties of operations, particularly the distributive property, leading to products such as (–1)(–1) = 1 and the rules for multiplying signed numbers. Interpret products of rational numbers by describing realworld contexts. 
7.NS.2.b  Understand that integers can be divided, provided that the divisor is not zero, and every quotient of integers (with nonzero divisor) is a rational number. If p and q are integers, then –(p/q) = (–p)/q = p/(–q). Interpret quotients of rational numbers by describing real world contexts. 
7.NS.2.c  Apply properties of operations as strategies to multiply and divide rational numbers. 
7.NS.2.d  Convert a rational number to a decimal using long division; know that the decimal form of a rational number terminates in 0s or eventually repeats. 
7.NS.3  Solve realworld and mathematical problems involving the four operations with rational numbers. 
8.NS: Know That There Are Numbers That Are Not Rational, And Approximate Them By Rational Numbers.  
8.NS.1  Know that numbers that are not rational are called irrational. Understand informally that every number has a decimal expansion; for rational numbers show that the decimal expansion repeats eventually, and convert a decimal expansion which repeats eventually into a rational number. 
8.NS.2  Use rational approximations of irrational numbers to compare the size of irrational numbers, locate them approximately on a number line diagram, and estimate the value of expressions (e.g., π2). For example, by truncating the decimal expansion of √2, show that √2 is between 1 and 2, then between 1.4 and 1.5, and explain how to continue on to get better approximations. 
Key Standards Supported
Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity  
2LS4  
2LS41  Make observations of plants and animals to compare the diversity of life in different habitats. 
HSLS4  
HSLS41  Communicate scientific information that common ancestry and biological evolution are supported by multiple lines of empirical evidence. 
HSLS42  Construct an explanation based on evidence that the process of evolution primarily results from four factors: (1) the potential for a species to increase in number, (2) the heritable genetic variation of individuals in a species due to mutation and sexual reproduction, (3) competition for limited resources, and (4) the proliferation of those organisms that are better able to survive and reproduce in the environment. 
MSLS4  
MSLS42  Apply scientific ideas to construct an explanation for the anatomical similarities and differences among modern organisms and between modern and fossil organisms to infer evolutionary relationships. 
MSLS44  Construct an explanation based on evidence that describes how genetic variations of traits in a population increase some individuals’ probability of surviving and reproducing in a specific environment. 
MSLS45  Gather and synthesize information about the technologies that have changed the way humans influence the inheritance of desired traits in organisms. 
Earth and Human Activity  
4ESS3  
4ESS31  Obtain and combine information to describe that energy and fuels are derived from natural resources and their uses affect the environment. 
4ESS32  Generate and compare multiple solutions to reduce the impacts of natural Earth processes on humans. 
5ESS3  
5ESS31  Obtain and combine information about ways individual communities use science ideas to protect the Earth’s resources and environment. 
Earth’s Place in the Universe  
1ESS1  
1ESS11  Use observations of the sun, moon, and stars to describe patterns that can be predicted. 
2ESS1  
2ESS11  Use information from several sources to provide evidence that Earth events can occur quickly or slowly. 
5ESS1  
5ESS11  Support an argument that differences in the apparent brightness of the sun compared to other stars is due to their relative distances from Earth. 
HSESS1  
HSESS15  Evaluate evidence of the past and current movements of continental and oceanic crust and the theory of plate tectonics to explain the ages of crustal rocks. 
HSESS16  Apply scientific reasoning and evidence from ancient Earth materials, meteorites, and other planetary surfaces to construct an account of Earth’s formation and early history. 
Earth’s Systems  
2ESS2  
2ESS23  Obtain information to identify where water is found on Earth and that it can be solid or liquid. 
3ESS2  
3ESS22  Obtain and combine information to describe climates in different regions of the world. 
MSESS2  
MSESS25  Collect data to provide evidence for how the motions and complex interactions of air masses results in changes in weather conditions. 
Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics  
3LS2  
3LS21  Construct an argument that some animals form groups that help members survive. 
HSLS2  
HSLS26  Evaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning that the complex interactions in ecosystems maintain relatively consistent numbers and types of organisms in stable conditions, but changing conditions may result in a new ecosystem. 
MSLS2  
MSLS21  Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence for the effects of resource availability on organisms and populations of organisms in an ecosystem. 
MSLS25  Evaluate competing design solutions for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem services. 
Matter and Its Interactions  
2PS1  
2PS14  Construct an argument with evidence that some changes caused by heating or cooling can be reversed and some cannot. 
Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions  
5PS2  
5PS21  Support an argument that the gravitational force exerted by Earth on objects is directed down. 
HSPS2  
HSPS21  Analyze data to support the claim that Newton’s second law of motion describes the mathematical relationship among the net force on a macroscopic object, its mass, and its acceleration. 
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