Incredibly engaging cartoons on a wide range of topics draw kids in
They're funny, they're slick, and they're smart: The cartoon videos in BrainPOP Featured Movie draw kids in, and the brightly colored interface is easy to navigate.
Smart, fun videos have plenty of great content, but without guidance, students may not be using higherorder thinking or problemsolving skills. Assessments can be lackluster and don't let kids apply new knowledge.
Easy navigation, multiple languages, and subtitles make it easy for a range of kids to access content. Teachers can get free lesson plans online. No interactive activities are bundled with the app, although they are on the Web.
Tim and Moby the robot, in a series of animated videos, break down tons of topics from atoms to the idea of … a main idea! With BrainPOP Featured Movie's extensive collection, students can get a fun, free daily dose of information.
When kids first open the app, they can go to the bottom of the screen to explore an academic subject, or they can watch the featured movie. Related videos sit next to the featured video, so if kids want to keep learning about the same subject, they can immediately go deeper. Navigation is simple, with large and brightly colored buttons and symbols for each subject area, making it easy for kids to find videos on particular topics.
The videos play in a large window, and kids can view them in full screen. They can pause, fastforward, and rewind, and the videos load quickly and have good sound quality. The featured movie is always free, and each subject area has a number of free movies, although many videos require kids to log in with a paid BrainPOP subscription.
BrainPOP offers Spanish, French, and U.K. English, and each video has subtitles. Overall, BrainPOP Featured Movie delivers a wide variety of content in short, easily digestible videos that kids will enjoy.
Elementary and middle school classrooms with one or more mobile devices are a good bet for BrainPOP Featured Movie. With one device, kids could rotate to view videos, or certain students could be assigned to watch a particular video on a particular topic. If each kid has her own device, teachers could easily incorporate the videos into lessons (provided each student has headphones!).
The quiz is a great way for kids to test their understanding of what they've just seen. However, the 10 multiplechoice questions are limited in how far they can extend learning. One neat function is that the app records high quiz scores, so kids can keep track of which videos they've watched and monitor their learning. Also, of course, if kids share a device to take quizzes, this can add an element of healthy competition.
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Key Standards Supported
Reading Foundational Skills  
RF.2: Fluency  
RF.2.4  Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension. 
RF.2.4a  Read onlevel text with purpose and understanding. 
RF.2.4b  Read onlevel text orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings. 
RF.2.4c  Use context to confirm or selfcorrect word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary. 
Phonics and Word recognition  
RF.2.3  Know and apply gradelevel phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. 
RF.2.3a  Distinguish long and short vowels when reading regularly spelled onesyllable words. 
RF.2.3b  Know spellingsound correspondences for additional common vowel teams. 
RF.2.3c  Decode regularly spelled twosyllable words with long vowels. 
RF.2.3d  Decode words with common prefixes and suffixes. 
RF.2.3e  Identify words with inconsistent but common spellingsound correspondences. 
RF.2.3f  Recognize and read gradeappropriate irregularly spelled words. 
RF.3: Fluency  
RF.3.4  Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension. 
RF.3.4a  Read onlevel text with purpose and understanding. 
RF.3.4b  Read onlevel prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings 
RF.3.4c  Use context to confirm or selfcorrect word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary. 
Phonics and Word recognition  
RF.3.3  Know and apply gradelevel phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. 
RF.3.3a  Identify and know the meaning of the most common prefixes and derivational suffixes. 
RF.3.3b  Decode words with common Latin suffixes. 
RF.3.3c  Decode multisyllable words. 
RF.3.3d  Read gradeappropriate irregularly spelled words. 
RF.4: Fluency  
RF.4.4  Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension. 
RF.4.4a  Read onlevel text with purpose and understanding. 
RF.4.4b  Read onlevel prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings. 
RF.4.4c  Use context to confirm or selfcorrect word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary. 
Phonics and Word recognition  
RF.4.3  Know and apply gradelevel phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. 
RF.4.3a  Use combined knowledge of all lettersound correspondences, syllabication patterns, and morphology (e.g., roots and affixes) to read accurately unfamiliar multisyllabic words in context and out of context. 
RF.5: Fluency  
RF.5.4  Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension. 
RF.5.4a  Read onlevel text with purpose and understanding. 
RF.5.4b  Read onlevel prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings. 
RF.5.4c  Use context to confirm or selfcorrect word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary. 
Phonics and Word recognition  
RF.5.3  Know and apply gradelevel phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. 
RF.5.3a  Use combined knowledge of all lettersound correspondences, syllabication patterns, and morphology (e.g., roots and affixes) to read accurately unfamiliar multisyllabic words in context and out of context. 
Speaking & Listening  
SL.2: Comprehension and Collaboration  
SL.2.1  Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about grade 2 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups. 
SL.2.1a  Follow agreedupon rules for discussions (e.g., gaining the floor in respectful ways, listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion). 
SL.2.1b  Build on others’ talk in conversations by linking their comments to the remarks of others. 
SL.2.1c  Ask for clarification and further explanation as needed about the topics and texts under discussion. 
SL.2.2  Recount or describe key ideas or details from a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media. 
SL.2.3  Ask and answer questions about what a speaker says in order to clarify comprehension, gather additional information, or deepen understanding of a topic or issue. 
Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas  
SL.2.4  Tell a story or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details, speaking audibly in coherent sentences. 
SL.2.5  Create audio recordings of stories or poems; add drawings or other visual displays to stories or recounts of experiences when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings. 
SL.2.6  Produce complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation in order to provide requested detail or clarification. 
SL.3: Comprehension and Collaboration  
SL.3.1  Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (oneonone, in groups, and teacherled) with diverse partners on grade 3 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly. 
SL.3.1a  Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion. 
SL.3.1b  Follow agreedupon rules for discussions (e.g., gaining the floor in respectful ways, listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion). 
SL.3.1c  Ask questions to check understanding of information presented, stay on topic, and link their comments to the remarks of others. 
SL.3.1d  Explain their own ideas and understanding in light of the discussion. 
SL.3.2  Determine the main ideas and supporting details of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally. 
SL.3.3  Ask and answer questions about information from a speaker, offering appropriate elaboration and detail. 
Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas  
SL.3.4  Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details, speaking clearly at an understandable pace. 
SL.3.5  Create engaging audio recordings of stories or poems that demonstrate fluid reading at an understandable pace; add visual displays when appropriate to emphasize or enhance certain facts or details. 
SL.3.6  Speak in complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation in order to provide requested detail or clarification. 
SL.4: Comprehension and Collaboration  
SL.4.1  Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (oneonone, in groups, and teacherled) with diverse partners on grade 4 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly. 
SL.4.1a  Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion. 
SL.4.1b  Follow agreedupon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles. 
SL.4.1c  Pose and respond to specific questions to clarify or follow up on information, and make comments that contribute to the discussion and link to the remarks of others. 
SL.4.1d  Review the key ideas expressed and explain their own ideas and understanding in light of the discussion. 
SL.4.2  Paraphrase portions of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally. 
SL.4.3  Identify the reasons and evidence a speaker provides to support particular points. 
Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas  
SL.4.4  Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience in an organized manner, using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly at an understandable pace. 
SL.4.5  Add audio recordings and visual displays to presentations when appropriate to enhance the development of main ideas or themes. 
SL.4.6  Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g., presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., smallgroup discussion); use formal English when appropriate to task and situation. 
SL.5: Comprehension and Collaboration  
SL.5.1  Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (oneonone, in groups, and teacherled) with diverse partners on grade 5 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly. 
SL.5.1a  Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion. 
SL.5.1b  Follow agreedupon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles. 
SL.5.1c  Pose and respond to specific questions by making comments that contribute to the discussion and elaborate on the remarks of others. 
SL.5.1d  Review the key ideas expressed and draw conclusions in light of information and knowledge gained from the discussions. 
SL.5.2  Summarize a written text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally. 
SL.5.3  Summarize the points a speaker makes and explain how each claim is supported by reasons and evidence. 
Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas  
SL.5.4  Report on a topic or text or present an opinion, sequencing ideas logically and using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly at an understandable pace. 
SL.5.5  Include multimedia components (e.g., graphics, sound) and visual displays in presentations when appropriate to enhance the development of main ideas or themes. 
SL.5.6  Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, using formal English when appropriate to task and situation. 
SL.6: Comprehension and Collaboration  
SL.6.1  Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (oneonone, in groups, and teacherled) with diverse partners on grade 6 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly. 
SL.6.1a  Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic, text, or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion. 
SL.6.1b  Follow rules for collegial discussions, set specific goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed. 
SL.6.1c  Pose and respond to specific questions with elaboration and detail by making comments that contribute to the topic, text, or issue under discussion. 
SL.6.1d  Review the key ideas expressed and demonstrate understanding of multiple perspectives through reflection and paraphrasing. 
SL.6.2  Interpret information presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) and explain how it contributes to a topic, text, or issue under study. 
SL.6.3  Delineate a speaker’s argument and specific claims, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not. 
Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas  
SL.6.4  Present claims and findings, sequencing ideas logically and using pertinent descriptions, facts, and details to accentuate main ideas or themes; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation. 
SL.6.5  Include multimedia components (e.g., graphics, images, music, sound) and visual displays in presentations to clarify information. 
SL.6.6  Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. 
SL.7: Comprehension and Collaboration  
SL.7.1  Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (oneonone, in groups, and teacherled) with diverse partners on grade 7 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly. 
SL.7.1a  Come to discussions prepared, having read or researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic, text, or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion. 
SL.7.1b  Follow rules for collegial discussions, track progress toward specific goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed. 
SL.7.1c  Pose questions that elicit elaboration and respond to others’ questions and comments with relevant observations and ideas that bring the discussion back on topic as needed. 
SL.7.1d  Acknowledge new information expressed by others and, when warranted, modify their own views. 
SL.7.2  Analyze the main ideas and supporting details presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) and explain how the ideas clarify a topic, text, or issue under study. 
SL.7.3  Delineate a speaker’s argument and specific claims, evaluating the soundness of the reasoning and the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence. 
Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas  
SL.7.4  Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with pertinent descriptions, facts, details, and examples; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation. 
SL.7.5  Include multimedia components and visual displays in presentations to clarify claims and findings and emphasize salient points. 
SL.7.6  Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. 
SL.8: Comprehension and Collaboration  
SL.8.1  Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (oneonone, in groups, and teacherled) with diverse partners on grade 8 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly. 
SL.8.1a  Come to discussions prepared, having read or researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic, text, or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion. 
SL.8.1b  Follow rules for collegial discussions and decisionmaking, track progress toward specific goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed. 
SL.8.1c  Pose questions that connect the ideas of several speakers and respond to others’ questions and comments with relevant evidence, observations, and ideas. 
SL.8.1d  Acknowledge new information expressed by others, and, when warranted, qualify or justify their own views in light of the evidence presented. 
SL.8.2  Analyze the purpose of information presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) and evaluate the motives (e.g., social, commercial, political) behind its presentation. 
SL.8.3  Delineate a speaker’s argument and specific claims, evaluating the soundness of the reasoning and relevance and sufficiency of the evidence and identifying when irrelevant evidence is introduced. 
Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas  
SL.8.4  Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with relevant evidence, sound valid reasoning, and wellchosen details; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation. 
SL.8.5  Integrate multimedia and visual displays into presentations to clarify information, strengthen claims and evidence, and add interest. 
SL.8.6  Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. 
Writing  
W.2: Production and Distribution of Writing  
W.2.4  (Begins in grade 3) 
W.2.5  With guidance and support from adults and peers, focus on a topic and strengthen writing as needed by revising and editing. 
W.2.6  With guidance and support from adults, use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, including in collaboration with peers. 
Range of Writing  
W.2.10  (Begins in grade 3) 
Research to Build and Present Knowledge  
W.2.7  Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., read a number of books on a single topic to produce a report; record science observations). 
W.2.8  Recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question. 
W.2.9  (Begins in grade 4) 
Text Types and Purposes  
W.2.1  Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply reasons that support the opinion, use linking words (e.g., because, and, also) to connect opinion and reasons, and provide a concluding statement or section. 
W.2.2  Write informative/explanatory texts in which they introduce a topic, use facts and definitions to develop points, and provide a concluding statement or section. 
W.2.3  Write narratives in which they recount a wellelaborated event or short sequence of events, include details to describe actions, thoughts, and feelings, use temporal words to signal event order, and provide a sense of closure. 
W.3: Production and Distribution of Writing  
W.3.4  With guidance and support from adults, produce writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task and purpose. (Gradespecific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.) 
W.3.5  With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing. 
W.3.6  With guidance and support from adults, use technology to produce and publish writing (using keyboarding skills) as well as to interact and collaborate with others. 
Range of Writing  
W.3.10  Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of disciplinespecific tasks, purposes, and audiences. 
Research to Build and Present Knowledge  
W.3.7  Conduct short research projects that build knowledge about a topic. 
W.3.8  Recall information from experiences or gather information from print and digital sources; take brief notes on sources and sort evidence into provided categories. 
W.3.9  (Begins in grade 4) 
Text Types and Purposes  
W.3.1  Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons. 
W.3.1a  Introduce the topic or text they are writing about, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure that lists reasons. 
W.3.1b  Provide reasons that support the opinion. 
W.3.1c  Use linking words and phrases (e.g., because, therefore, since, for example) to connect opinion and reasons. 
W.3.1d  Provide a concluding statement or section. 
W.3.2  Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly. 
W.3.2a  Introduce a topic and group related information together; include illustrations when useful to aiding comprehension. 
W.3.2b  Develop the topic with facts, definitions, and details. 
W.3.2c  Use linking words and phrases (e.g., also, another, and, more, but) to connect ideas within categories of information. 
W.3.2d  Provide a concluding statement or section. 
W.3.3  Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences. 
W.3.3a  Establish a situation and introduce a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally. 
W.3.3b  Use dialogue and descriptions of actions, thoughts, and feelings to develop experiences and events or show the response of characters to situations. 
W.3.3c  Use temporal words and phrases to signal event order. 
W.3.3d  Provide a sense of closure. 
W.4: Production and Distribution of Writing  
W.4.4  Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Gradespecific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.) 
W.4.5  With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing. 
W.4.6  With some guidance and support from adults, use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of one page in a single sitting. 
Range of Writing  
W.4.10  Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of disciplinespecific tasks, purposes, and audiences. 
Research to Build and Present Knowledge  
W.4.7  Conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic. 
W.4.8  Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; take notes and categorize information, and provide a list of sources. 
W.4.9  Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. 
W.4.9a  Apply grade 4 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text [e.g., a character’s thoughts, words, or actions].”). 
W.4.9b  Apply grade 4 Reading standards to informational texts (e.g., “Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text”). 
Text Types and Purposes  
W.4.1  Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information. 
W.4.1a  Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which related ideas are grouped to support the writer’s purpose. 
W.4.1b  Provide reasons that are supported by facts and details. 
W.4.1c  Link opinion and reasons using words and phrases (e.g., for instance, in order to, in addition). 
W.4.1d  Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented. 
W.4.2  Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly. 
W.4.2a  Introduce a topic clearly and group related information in paragraphs and sections; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension. 
W.4.2b  Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic. 
W.4.2c  Link ideas within categories of information using words and phrases (e.g., another, for example, also, because). 
W.4.2d  d.Use precise language and domainspecific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic. 
W.4.2e  Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or explanation presented. 
W.4.3  Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences. 
W.4.3a  Orient the reader by establishing a situation and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally. 
W.4.3b  Use dialogue and description to develop experiences and events or show the responses of characters to situations. 
W.4.3c  Use a variety of transitional words and phrases to manage the sequence of events. 
W.4.3d  Use concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences and events precisely. 
W.4.3e  Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events. 
W.5: Production and Distribution of Writing  
W.5.4  Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Gradespecific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.) 
W.5.5  With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach. 
W.5.6  With some guidance and support from adults, use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of two pages in a single sitting. 
Range of Writing  
W.5.10  Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of disciplinespecific tasks, purposes, and audiences. 
Research to Build and Present Knowledge  
W.5.7  Conduct short research projects that use several sources to build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic. 
W.5.8  Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; summarize or paraphrase information in notes and finished work, and provide a list of sources. 
W.5.9  Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. 
W.5.9a  Apply grade 5 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Compare and contrast two or more characters, settings, or events in a story or a drama, drawing on specific details in the text [e.g., how characters interact]”). 
W.5.9b  Apply grade 5 Reading standards to informational texts (e.g., “Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text, identifying which reasons and evidence support which point[s]”). 
Text Types and Purposes  
W.5.1  Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information. 
W.5.1a  Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which ideas are logically grouped to support the writer’s purpose. 
W.5.1b  Provide logically ordered reasons that are supported by facts and details. 
W.5.1c  Link opinion and reasons using words, phrases, and clauses (e.g., consequently, specifically). 
W.5.1d  Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented. 
W.5.2  Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly. 
W.5.2a  Introduce a topic clearly, provide a general observation and focus, and group related information logically; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension. 
W.5.2b  Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic. 
W.5.2c  Link ideas within and across categories of information using words, phrases, and clauses (e.g., in contrast, especially). 
W.5.2d  Use precise language and domainspecific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic. 
W.5.2e  Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or explanation presented. 
W.5.3  Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences. 
W.5.3a  Orient the reader by establishing a situation and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally. 
W.5.3b  Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, description, and pacing, to develop experiences and events or show the responses of characters to situations. 
W.5.3c  Use a variety of transitional words, phrases, and clauses to manage the sequence of events. 
W.5.3d  Use concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences and events precisely. 
W.5.3e  Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events. 
W.6: Production and Distribution of Writing  
W.6.4  Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Gradespecific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.) 
W.6.5  With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach. 
W.6.6  Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of three pages in a single sitting. 
Range of Writing  
W.6.10  Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of disciplinespecific tasks, purposes, and 
Research to Build and Present Knowledge  
W.6.7  Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and refocusing the inquiry when appropriate. 
W.6.8  Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources; assess the credibility of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and providing basic bibliographic information for sources. 
W.6.9  Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. 
W.6.9a  Apply grade 6 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Compare and contrast texts in different forms or genres [e.g., stories and poems; historical novels and fantasy stories] in terms of their approaches to similar themes and topics”). 
W.6.9b  Apply grade 6 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., “Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not”). 
Text Types and Purposes  
W.6.1  Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence. 
W.6.1a  Introduce claim(s) and organize the reasons and evidence clearly. 
W.6.1b  Support claim(s) with clear reasons and relevant evidence, using credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text. 
W.6.1c  Use words, phrases, and clauses to clarify the relationships among claim(s) and reasons. 
W.6.1d  Establish and maintain a formal style. 
W.6.1e  Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from the argument presented. 
W.6.2  Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content. 
W.6.2a  Introduce a topic; organize ideas, concepts, and information, using strategies such as definition, classification, comparison/contrast, and cause/effect; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension. 
W.6.2b  Develop the topic with relevant facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples. 
W.6.2c  Use appropriate transitions to clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts. 
W.6.2d  Use precise language and domainspecific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic. 
W.6.2e  Establish and maintain a formal style. 
W.6.2f  Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from the information or explanation presented. 
W.6.3  Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and wellstructured event sequences. 
W.6.3a  Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically. 
W.6.3b  Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, and description, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters. 
W.6.3c  Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence and signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another. 
W.6.3d  Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to convey experiences and events. 
W.6.3e  Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events. 
W.7: Production and Distribution of Writing  
W.7.4  Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Gradespecific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.) 
W.7.5  With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed. 
W.7.6  Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and link to and cite sources as well as to interact and collaborate with others, including linking to and citing sources. 
Range of Writing  
W.7.10  Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of disciplinespecific tasks, purposes, and audiences. 
Research to Build and Present Knowledge  
W.7.7  Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions for further research and investigation. 
W.7.8  Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation. 
W.7.9  Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. 
W.7.9a  Apply grade 7 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Compare and contrast a fictional portrayal of a time, place, or character and a historical account of the same period as a means of understanding how authors of fiction use or alter history”). 
W.7.9b  Apply grade 7 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g. “Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient to support the claims”). 
Text Types and Purposes  
W.7.1  Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence. 
W.7.1a  Introduce claim(s), acknowledge alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically. 
W.7.1b  Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant evidence, using accurate, credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text. 
W.7.1c  Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), reasons, and evidence. 
W.7.1d  Establish and maintain a formal style. 
W.7.1e  Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented. 
W.7.2  Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content. 
W.7.2a  Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information, using strategies such as definition, classification, comparison/contrast, and cause/effect; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension. 
W.7.2b  Develop the topic with relevant facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples. 
W.7.2c  Use appropriate transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts. 
W.7.2d  Use precise language and domainspecific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic. 
W.7.2e  Establish and maintain a formal style. 
W.7.2f  Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented. 
W.7.3  Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and wellstructured event sequences. 
W.7.3a  Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and point of view and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically. 
W.7.3b  Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, and description, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters. 
W.7.3c  Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence and signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another. 
W.7.3d  Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to capture the action and convey experiences and events. 
W.7.3e  Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on the narrated experiences or events. 
W.8: Production and Distribution of Writing  
W.8.4  Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Gradespecific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.) 
W.8.5  With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed. 
W.8.6  Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and present the relationships between information and ideas efficiently as well as to interact and collaborate with others. 
Range of Writing  
W.8.10  Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of disciplinespecific tasks, purposes, and audiences. 
Research to Build and Present Knowledge  
W.8.7  Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a selfgenerated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration. 
W.8.8  Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation. 
W.8.9  Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. 
W.8.9a  Apply grade 8 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Analyze how a modern work of fiction draws on themes, patterns of events, or character types from myths, traditional stories, or religious works such as the Bible, including describing how the material is rendered new”). 
W.8.9b  Apply grade 8 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., “Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; recognize when irrelevant evidence is introduced”). 
Text Types and Purposes  
W.8.1  Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence. 
W.8.1a  Introduce claim(s), acknowledge and distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically. 
W.8.1b  Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant evidence, using accurate, credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text. 
W.8.1c  Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence. 
W.8.1d  Establish and maintain a formal style. 
W.8.1e  Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented. 
W.8.2  Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content. 
W.8.2a  Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information into broader categories; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension. 
W.8.2b  Develop the topic with relevant, wellchosen facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples. 
W.8.2c  Use appropriate and varied transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts. 
W.8.2d  Use precise language and domainspecific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic. 
W.8.2e  Establish and maintain a formal style. 
W.8.2f  Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented. 
W.8.3  Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and wellstructured event sequences. 
W.8.3a  Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and point of view and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically. 
W.8.3b  Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, and reflection, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters. 
W.8.3c  Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence, signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another, and show the relationships among experiences and events. 
W.8.3d  Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to capture the action and convey experiences and events. 
W.8.3e  Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on the narrated experiences or events. 
Expressions And Equations  
6.EE: Apply And Extend Previous Understandings Of Arithmetic To Algebraic Expressions.  
6.EE.1  Write and evaluate numerical expressions involving wholenumber exponents. 
6.EE.2  Write, read, and evaluate expressions in which letters stand for numbers. 
6.EE.2.a  Write expressions that record operations with numbers and with letters standing for numbers. For example, express the calculation “Subtract y from 5” as 5 – y. 
6.EE.2.b  Identify parts of an expression using mathematical terms (sum, term, product, factor, quotient, coefficient); view one or more parts of an expression as a single entity. For example, describe the expression 2 (8 + 7) as a product of two factors; view (8 + 7) as both a single entity and a sum of two terms. 
6.EE.2.c  Evaluate expressions at specific values of their variables. Include expressions that arise from formulas used in realworld problems. Perform arithmetic operations, including those involving whole number exponents, in the conventional order when there are no parentheses to specify a particular order (Order of Operations). For example, use the formulas V = s3 and A = 6 s2 to find the volume and surface area of a cube with sides of length s = 1/2. 
6.EE.3  Apply the properties of operations to generate equivalent expressions. 
6.EE.4  Identify when two expressions are equivalent (i.e., when the two expressions name the same number regardless of which value is substituted into them). For example, the expressions y + y + y and 3y are equivalent because they name the same number regardless of which number y stands for. 
Reason About And Solve OneVariable Equations And Inequalities.  
6.EE.5  Understand solving an equation or inequality as a process of answering a question: which values from a specified set, if any, make the equation or inequality true? Use substitution to determine whether a given number in a specified set makes an equation or inequality true. 
6.EE.6  Use variables to represent numbers and write expressions when solving a realworld or mathematical problem; understand that a variable can represent an unknown number, or, depending on the purpose at hand, any number in a specified set. 
6.EE.7  Solve realworld and mathematical problems by writing and solving equations of the form x + p = q and px = q for cases in which p, q and x are all nonnegative rational numbers. 
6.EE.8  Write an inequality of the form x > c or x < c to represent a constraint or condition in a realworld or mathematical problem. Recognize that inequalities of the form x > c or x < c have infinitely many solutions; represent solutions of such inequalities on number line diagrams. 
Represent And Analyze Quantitative Relationships Between Dependent And Independent Variables.  
6.EE.9  Use variables to represent two quantities in a realworld problem that change in relationship to one another; write an equation to express one quantity, thought of as the dependent variable, in terms of the other quantity, thought of as the independent variable. Analyze the relationship between the dependent and independent variables using graphs and tables, and relate these to the equation. For example, in a problem involving motion at constant speed, list and graph ordered pairs of distances and times, and write the equation d = 65t to represent the relationship between distance and time. 
7.EE: Solve RealLife And Mathematical Problems Using Numerical And Algebraic Expressions And Equations.  
7.EE.3  Solve multistep reallife and mathematical problems posed with positive and negative rational numbers in any form (whole numbers, fractions, and decimals), using tools strategically. Apply properties of operations to calculate with numbers in any form; convert between forms as appropriate; and assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies. For example: If a woman making $25 an hour gets a 10% raise, she will make an additional 1/10 of her salary an hour, or $2.50, for a new salary of $27.50. If you want to place a towel bar 9 3/4 inches long in the center of a door that is 27 1/2 inches wide, you will need to place the bar about 9 inches from each edge; this estimate can be used as a check on the exact computation. 
7.EE.4  Use variables to represent quantities in a realworld or mathematical problem, and construct simple equations and inequalities to solve problems by reasoning about the quantities. 
7.EE.4.a  Solve word problems leading to equations of the form px + q = r and p(x + q) = r, where p, q, and r are specific rational numbers. Solve equations of these forms fluently. Compare an algebraic solution to an arithmetic solution, identifying the sequence of the operations used in each approach. For example, the perimeter of a rectangle is 54 cm. Its length is 6 cm. What is its width? 
7.EE.4.b  Solve word problems leading to inequalities of the form px + q > r or px + q < r, where p, q, and r are specific rational numbers. Graph the solution set of the inequality and interpret it in the context of the problem. For example: As a salesperson, you are paid $50 per week plus $3 per sale. This week you want your pay to be at least $100. Write an inequality for the number of sales you need to make, and describe the solutions. 
Use Properties Of Operations To Generate Equivalent Expressions.  
7.EE.1  Apply properties of operations as strategies to add, subtract, factor, and expand linear expressions with rational coefficients. 
7.EE.2  Understand that rewriting an expression in different forms in a problem context can shed light on the problem and how the quantities in it are related. For example, a + 0.05a = 1.05a means that “increase by 5%” is the same as “multiply by 1.05.” 
8.EE: Analyze And Solve Linear Equations And Pairs Of Simultaneous Linear Equations.  
8.EE.7  Solve linear equations in one variable. 
8.EE.7.a  Give examples of linear equations in one variable with one solution, infinitely many solutions, or no solutions. Show which of these possibilities is the case by successively transforming the given equation into simpler forms, until an equivalent equation of the form x = a, a = a, or a = b results (where a and b are different numbers). 
8.EE.7.b  Solve linear equations with rational number coefficients, including equations whose solutions require expanding expressions using the distributive property and collecting like terms. 
8.EE.8  Analyze and solve pairs of simultaneous linear equations. 
8.EE.8.a  Understand that solutions to a system of two linear equations in two variables correspond to points of intersection of their graphs, because points of intersection satisfy both equations simultaneously. 
8.EE.8.b  Solve systems of two linear equations in two variables algebraically, and estimate solutions by graphing the equations. Solve simple cases by inspection. For example, 3x + 2y = 5 and 3x + 2y = 6 have no solution because 3x + 2y cannot simultaneously be 5 and 6. 
8.EE.8.c  Solve realworld and mathematical problems leading to two linear equations in two variables. For example, given coordinates for two pairs of points, determine whether the line through the first pair of points intersects the line through the second pair. 
Understand The Connections Between Proportional Relationships, Lines, And Linear Equations.  
8.EE.5  Graph proportional relationships, interpreting the unit rate as the slope of the graph. Compare two different proportional relationships represented in different ways. For example, compare a distancetime graph to a distancetime equation to determine which of two moving objects has greater speed. 
8.EE.6  Use similar triangles to explain why the slope m is the same between any two distinct points on a nonvertical line in the coordinate plane; derive the equation y = mx for a line through the origin and the equation y = mx + b for a line intercepting the vertical axis at b. 
Work With Radicals And Integer Exponents.  
8.EE.1  Know and apply the properties of integer exponents to generate equivalent numerical expressions. For example, 32 × 3–5 = 3–3 = 1/33 = 1/27. 
8.EE.2  Use square root and cube root symbols to represent solutions to equations of the form x2 = p and x3 = p, where p is a positive rational number. Evaluate square roots of small perfect squares and cube roots of small perfect cubes. Know that √2 is irrational. 
8.EE.3  Use numbers expressed in the form of a single digit times an integer power of 10 to estimate very large or very small quantities, and to express how many times as much one is than the other. For example, estimate the population of the United States as 3 × 108 and the population of the world as 7 × 109, and determine that the world population is more than 20 times larger. 
8.EE.4  Perform operations with numbers expressed in scientific notation, including problems where both decimal and scientific notation are used. Use scientific notation and choose units of appropriate size for measurements of very large or very small quantities (e.g., use millimeters per year for seafloor spreading). Interpret scientific notation that has been generated by technology. 
Geometry  
2.G: Reason With Shapes And Their Attributes.  
2.G.1  Recognize and draw shapes having specified attributes, such as a given number of angles or a given number of equal faces.5 Identify triangles, quadrilaterals, pentagons, hexagons, and cubes. 
2.G.2  Partition a rectangle into rows and columns of samesize squares and count to find the total number of them. 
2.G.3  Partition circles and rectangles into two, three, or four equal shares, describe the shares using the words halves, thirds, half of, a third of, etc., and describe the whole as two halves, three thirds, four fourths. Recognize that equal shares of identical wholes need not have the same shape. 
3.G: Reason With Shapes And Their Attributes.  
3.G.1  Understand that shapes in different categories (e.g., rhombuses, rectangles, and others) may share attributes (e.g., having four sides), and that the shared attributes can define a larger category (e.g., quadrilaterals). Recognize rhombuses, rectangles, and squares as examples of quadrilaterals, and draw examples of quadrilaterals that do not belong to any of these subcategories. 
3.G.2  Partition shapes into parts with equal areas. Express the area of each part as a unit fraction of the whole. For example, partition a shape into 4 parts with equal area, and describe the area of each part as 1/4 of the area of the shape. 
4.G: Draw And Identify Lines And Angles, And Classify Shapes By Properties Of Their Lines And Angles.  
4.G.1  Draw points, lines, line segments, rays, angles (right, acute, obtuse), and perpendicular and parallel lines. Identify these in twodimensional figures. 
4.G.2  Classify twodimensional figures based on the presence or absence of parallel or perpendicular lines, or the presence or absence of angles of a specified size. Recognize right triangles as a category, and identify right triangles. 
4.G.3  Recognize a line of symmetry for a twodimensional figure as a line across the figure such that the figure can be folded along the line into matching parts. Identify linesymmetric figures and draw lines of symmetry. 
5.G: Classify TwoDimensional Figures Into Categories Based On Their Properties.  
5.G.3  Understand that attributes belonging to a category of two dimensional figures also belong to all subcategories of that category. For example, all rectangles have four right angles and squares are rectangles, so all squares have four right angles. 
5.G.4  Classify twodimensional figures in a hierarchy based on properties. 
Graph Points On The Coordinate Plane To Solve RealWorld And Mathematical Problems.  
5.G.1  Use a pair of perpendicular number lines, called axes, to define a coordinate system, with the intersection of the lines (the origin) arranged to coincide with the 0 on each line and a given point in the plane located by using an ordered pair of numbers, called its coordinates. Understand that the first number indicates how far to travel from the origin in the direction of one axis, and the second number indicates how far to travel in the direction of the second axis, with the convention that the names of the two axes and the coordinates correspond (e.g., xaxis and xcoordinate, yaxis and ycoordinate). 
5.G.2  Represent real world and mathematical problems by graphing points in the first quadrant of the coordinate plane, and interpret coordinate values of points in the context of the situation. 
6.G: Solve RealWorld And Mathematical Problems Involving Area, Surface Area, And Volume.  
6.G.1  Find the area of right triangles, other triangles, special quadrilaterals, and polygons by composing into rectangles or decomposing into triangles and other shapes; apply these techniques in the context of solving realworld and mathematical problems. 
6.G.2  Find the volume of a right rectangular prism with fractional edge lengths by packing it with unit cubes of the appropriate unit fraction edge lengths, and show that the volume is the same as would be found by multiplying the edge lengths of the prism. Apply the formulas V = l w h and V = b h to find volumes of right rectangular prisms with fractional edge lengths in the context of solving realworld and mathematical problems. 
6.G.3  Draw polygons in the coordinate plane given coordinates for the vertices; use coordinates to find the length of a side joining points with the same first coordinate or the same second coordinate. Apply these techniques in the context of solving realworld and mathematical problems. 
6.G.4  Represent threedimensional figures using nets made up of rectangles and triangles, and use the nets to find the surface area of these figures. Apply these techniques in the context of solving realworld and mathematical problems. 
7.G: Draw, Construct, And Describe Geometrical Figures And Describe The Relationships Between Them.  
7.G.1  Solve problems involving scale drawings of geometric figures, including computing actual lengths and areas from a scale drawing and reproducing a scale drawing at a different scale. 
7.G.2  Draw (freehand, with ruler and protractor, and with technology) geometric shapes with given conditions. Focus on constructing triangles from three measures of angles or sides, noticing when the conditions determine a unique triangle, more than one triangle, or no triangle. 
7.G.3  Describe the twodimensional figures that result from slicing three dimensional figures, as in plane sections of right rectangular prisms and right rectangular pyramids. 
Solve RealLife And Mathematical Problems Involving Angle Measure, Area, Surface Area, And Volume.  
7.G.4  Know the formulas for the area and circumference of a circle and use them to solve problems; give an informal derivation of the relationship between the circumference and area of a circle. 
7.G.5  Use facts about supplementary, complementary, vertical, and adjacent angles in a multistep problem to write and solve simple equations for an unknown angle in a figure. 
7.G.6  Solve realworld and mathematical problems involving area, volume and surface area of two and threedimensional objects composed of triangles, quadrilaterals, polygons, cubes, and right prisms. 
8.G: Solve RealWorld And Mathematical Problems Involving Volume Of Cylinders, Cones, And Spheres.  
8.G.9  Know the formulas for the volumes of cones, cylinders, and spheres and use them to solve realworld and mathematical problems. 
Understand And Apply The Pythagorean Theorem.  
8.G.6  Explain a proof of the Pythagorean Theorem and its converse. 
8.G.7  Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to determine unknown side lengths in right triangles in realworld and mathematical problems in two and three dimensions. 
8.G.8  Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to find the distance between two points in a coordinate system. 
Understand Congruence And Similarity Using Physical Models, Trans Parencies, Or Geometry Software.  
8.G.1  Verify experimentally the properties of rotations, reflections, and translations: 
8.G.1.a  Lines are taken to lines, and line segments to line segments of the same length. 
8.G.1.b  Angles are taken to angles of the same measure. 
8.G.1.c  Parallel lines are taken to parallel lines. 
8.G.2  Understand that a twodimensional figure is congruent to another if the second can be obtained from the first by a sequence of rotations, reflections, and translations; given two congruent figures, describe a sequence that exhibits the congruence between them. 
8.G.3  Describe the effect of dilations, translations, rotations, and reflections on twodimensional figures using coordinates. 
8.G.4  Understand that a twodimensional figure is similar to another if the second can be obtained from the first by a sequence of rotations, reflections, translations, and dilations; given two similar two dimensional figures, describe a sequence that exhibits the similarity between them. 
8.G.5  Use informal arguments to establish facts about the angle sum and exterior angle of triangles, about the angles created when parallel lines are cut by a transversal, and the angleangle criterion for similarity of triangles. For example, arrange three copies of the same triangle so that the sum of the three angles appears to form a line, and give an argument in terms of transversals why this is so. 
Measurement And Data  
2.MD: Measure And Estimate Lengths In Standard Units.  
2.MD.1  Measure the length of an object by selecting and using appropriate tools such as rulers, yardsticks, meter sticks, and measuring tapes. 
2.MD.2  Measure the length of an object twice, using length units of different lengths for the two measurements; describe how the two measurements relate to the size of the unit chosen. 
2.MD.3  Estimate lengths using units of inches, feet, centimeters, and meters. 
2.MD.4  Measure to determine how much longer one object is than another, expressing the length difference in terms of a standard length unit. 
Relate Addition And Subtraction To Length.  
2.MD.5  Use addition and subtraction within 100 to solve word problems involving lengths that are given in the same units, e.g., by using drawings (such as drawings of rulers) and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem. 
2.MD.6  Represent whole numbers as lengths from 0 on a number line diagram with equally spaced points corresponding to the numbers 0, 1, 2, ..., and represent wholenumber sums and differences within 100 on a number line diagram. 
Represent And Interpret Data.  
2.MD.10  Draw a picture graph and a bar graph (with singleunit scale) to represent a data set with up to four categories. Solve simple put together, takeapart, and compare problems4 using information presented in a bar graph. 
2.MD.9  Generate measurement data by measuring lengths of several objects to the nearest whole unit, or by making repeated measurements of the same object. Show the measurements by making a line plot, where the horizontal scale is marked off in wholenumber units. 
Work With Time And Money.  
2.MD.7  Tell and write time from analog and digital clocks to the nearest five minutes, using a.m. and p.m. 
2.MD.8  Solve word problems involving dollar bills, quarters, dimes, nickels, and pennies, using $ and ¢ symbols appropriately. Example: If you have 2 dimes and 3 pennies, how many cents do you have? 
3.MD: Geometric Measurement: Recognize Perimeter As An Attribute Of Plane Figures And Distinguish Between Linear And Area Measures.  
3.MD.8  Solve real world and mathematical problems involving perimeters of polygons, including finding the perimeter given the side lengths, finding an unknown side length, and exhibiting rectangles with the same perimeter and different areas or with the same area and different perimeters. 
Geometric Measurement: Understand Concepts Of Area And Relate Area To Multiplication And To Addition.  
3.MD.5  Recognize area as an attribute of plane figures and understand concepts of area measurement. 
3.MD.5.a  A square with side length 1 unit, called “a unit square,” is said to have “one square unit” of area, and can be used to measure area. 
3.MD.5.b  A plane figure which can be covered without gaps or overlaps by n unit squares is said to have an area of n square units. 
3.MD.6  Measure areas by counting unit squares (square cm, square m, square in, square ft, and improvised units). 
3.MD.7  Relate area to the operations of multiplication and addition. 
3.MD.7.a  Find the area of a rectangle with wholenumber side lengths by tiling it, and show that the area is the same as would be found by multiplying the side lengths. 
3.MD.7.b  Multiply side lengths to find areas of rectangles with whole number side lengths in the context of solving real world and mathematical problems, and represent wholenumber products as rectangular areas in mathematical reasoning. 
3.MD.7.c  Use tiling to show in a concrete case that the area of a rectangle with wholenumber side lengths a and b + c is the sum of a × b and a × c. Use area models to represent the distributive property in mathematical reasoning. 
3.MD.7.d  Recognize area as additive. Find areas of rectilinear figures by decomposing them into nonoverlapping rectangles and adding the areas of the nonoverlapping parts, applying this technique to solve real world problems. 
Represent And Interpret Data.  
3.MD.3  Draw a scaled picture graph and a scaled bar graph to represent a data set with several categories. Solve one and twostep “how many more” and “how many less” problems using information presented in scaled bar graphs. For example, draw a bar graph in which each square in the bar graph might represent 5 pets. 
3.MD.4  Generate measurement data by measuring lengths using rulers marked with halves and fourths of an inch. Show the data by making a line plot, where the horizontal scale is marked off in appropriate units— whole numbers, halves, or quarters. 
Solve Problems Involving Measurement And Estimation Of Intervals Of Time, Liquid Volumes, And Masses Of Objects.  
3.MD.1  Tell and write time to the nearest minute and measure time intervals in minutes. Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of time intervals in minutes, e.g., by representing the problem on a number line diagram. 
3.MD.2  Measure and estimate liquid volumes and masses of objects using standard units of grams (g), kilograms (kg), and liters (l).6 Add, subtract, multiply, or divide to solve onestep word problems involving masses or volumes that are given in the same units, e.g., by using drawings (such as a beaker with a measurement scale) to represent the problem.7 
4.MD: Geometric Measurement: Understand Concepts Of Angle And Measure Angles.  
4.MD.5  Recognize angles as geometric shapes that are formed wherever two rays share a common endpoint, and understand concepts of angle measurement: 
4.MD.5.a  An angle is measured with reference to a circle with its center at the common endpoint of the rays, by considering the fraction of the circular arc between the points where the two rays intersect the circle. An angle that turns through 1/360 of a circle is called a “onedegree angle,” and can be used to measure angles. 
4.MD.5.b  An angle that turns through n onedegree angles is said to have an angle measure of n degrees. 
4.MD.6  Measure angles in wholenumber degrees using a protractor. Sketch angles of specified measure. 
4.MD.7  Recognize angle measure as additive. When an angle is decomposed into nonoverlapping parts, the angle measure of the whole is the sum of the angle measures of the parts. Solve addition and subtraction problems to find unknown angles on a diagram in real world and mathematical problems, e.g., by using an equation with a symbol for the unknown angle measure. 
Represent And Interpret Data.  
4.MD.4  Make a line plot to display a data set of measurements in fractions of a unit (1/2, 1/4, 1/8). Solve problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions by using information presented in line plots. For example, from a line plot find and interpret the difference in length between the longest and shortest specimens in an insect collection. 
Solve Problems Involving Measurement And Conversion Of Measurements From A Larger Unit To A Smaller Unit.  
4.MD.1  Know relative sizes of measurement units within one system of units including km, m, cm; kg, g; lb, oz.; l, ml; hr, min, sec. Within a single system of measurement, express measurements in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Record measurement equivalents in a two column table. For example, know that 1 ft is 12 times as long as 1 in. Express the length of a 4 ft snake as 48 in. Generate a conversion table for feet and inches listing the number pairs (1, 12), (2, 24), (3, 36), ... 
4.MD.2  Use the four operations to solve word problems involving distances, intervals of time, liquid volumes, masses of objects, and money, including problems involving simple fractions or decimals, and problems that require expressing measurements given in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Represent measurement quantities using diagrams such as number line diagrams that feature a measurement scale. 
4.MD.3  Apply the area and perimeter formulas for rectangles in real world and mathematical problems. For example, find the width of a rectangular room given the area of the flooring and the length, by viewing the area formula as a multiplication equation with an unknown factor. 
5.MD: Convert Like Measurement Units Within A Given Measurement System.  
5.MD.1  Convert among differentsized standard measurement units within a given measurement system (e.g., convert 5 cm to 0.05 m), and use these conversions in solving multistep, real world problems. 
Geometric Measurement: Understand Concepts Of Volume And Relate Volume To Multiplication And To Addition.  
5.MD.3  Recognize volume as an attribute of solid figures and understand concepts of volume measurement. 
5.MD.3.a  A cube with side length 1 unit, called a “unit cube,” is said to have “one cubic unit” of volume, and can be used to measure volume. 
5.MD.3.b  A solid figure which can be packed without gaps or overlaps using n unit cubes is said to have a volume of n cubic units. 
5.MD.4  Measure volumes by counting unit cubes, using cubic cm, cubic in, cubic ft, and improvised units. 
5.MD.5  Relate volume to the operations of multiplication and addition and solve real world and mathematical problems involving volume. 
5.MD.5.a  Find the volume of a right rectangular prism with wholenumber side lengths by packing it with unit cubes, and show that the volume is the same as would be found by multiplying the edge lengths, equivalently by multiplying the height by the area of the base. Represent threefold wholenumber products as volumes, e.g., to represent the associative property of multiplication. 
5.MD.5.b  Apply the formulas V=l×w×handV=b×h for rectangular prisms to find volumes of right rectangular prisms with whole number edge lengths in the context of solving real world and mathematical problems. 
5.MD.5.c  Recognize volume as additive. Find volumes of solid figures composed of two nonoverlapping right rectangular prisms by adding the volumes of the nonoverlapping parts, applying this technique to solve real world problems. 
Represent And Interpret Data.  
5.MD.2  Make a line plot to display a data set of measurements in fractions of a unit (1/2, 1/4, 1/8). Use operations on fractions for this grade to solve problems involving information presented in line plots. For example, given different measurements of liquid in identical beakers, find the amount of liquid each beaker would contain if the total amount in all the beakers were redistributed equally. 
Number And Operations In Base Ten  
2.NBT: Understand Place Value.  
2.NBT.1  Understand that the three digits of a threedigit number represent amounts of hundreds, tens, and ones; e.g., 706 equals 7 hundreds, 0 tens, and 6 ones. Understand the following as special cases: 
2.NBT.1.a  100 can be thought of as a bundle of ten tens — called a “hundred.” 
2.NBT.1.b  The numbers 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900 refer to one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine hundreds (and 0 tens and 0 ones). 
2.NBT.2  Count within 1000; skipcount by 5s, 10s, and 100s. 
2.NBT.3  Read and write numbers to 1000 using baseten numerals, number names, and expanded form. 
2.NBT.4  Compare two threedigit numbers based on meanings of the hundreds, tens, and ones digits, using >, =, and < symbols to record the results of comparisons. 
Use Place Value Understanding And Properties Of Operations To Add And Subtract.  
2.NBT.5  Fluently add and subtract within 100 using strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction. 
2.NBT.6  Add up to four twodigit numbers using strategies based on place value and properties of operations. 
2.NBT.7  Add and subtract within 1000, using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method. Understand that in adding or subtracting three digit numbers, one adds or subtracts hundreds and hundreds, tens and tens, ones and ones; and sometimes it is necessary to compose or decompose tens or hundreds. 
2.NBT.8  Mentally add 10 or 100 to a given number 100–900, and mentally subtract 10 or 100 from a given number 100–900. 
2.NBT.9  Explain why addition and subtraction strategies work, using place value and the properties of operations.3 
3.NBT: Use Place Value Understanding And Properties Of Operations To Perform MultiDigit Arithmetic.4  
3.NBT.1  Use place value understanding to round whole numbers to the nearest 10 or 100. 
3.NBT.2  Fluently add and subtract within 1000 using strategies and algorithms based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction. 
3.NBT.3  Multiply onedigit whole numbers by multiples of 10 in the range 10–90 (e.g., 9 × 80, 5 × 60) using strategies based on place value and properties of operations. 
5.NBT: Perform Operations With MultiDigit Whole Numbers And With Decimals To Hundredths.  
5.NBT.5  Fluently multiply multidigit whole numbers using the standard algorithm. 
5.NBT.6  Find wholenumber quotients of whole numbers with up to fourdigit dividends and twodigit divisors, using strategies based on place value, the properties of operations, and/or the relationship between multiplication and division. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models. 
5.NBT.7  Add, subtract, multiply, and divide decimals to hundredths, using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning used. 
Understand The Place Value System.  
5.NBT.1  Recognize that in a multidigit number, a digit in one place represents 10 times as much as it represents in the place to its right and 1/10 of what it represents in the place to its left. 
5.NBT.2  Explain patterns in the number of zeros of the product when multiplying a number by powers of 10, and explain patterns in the placement of the decimal point when a decimal is multiplied or divided by a power of 10. Use wholenumber exponents to denote powers of 10. 
5.NBT.3  Read, write, and compare decimals to thousandths. 
5.NBT.3.a  Read and write decimals to thousandths using baseten numerals, number names, and expanded form, e.g., 347.392 = 3 × 100 + 4 × 10 + 7 × 1 + 3 × (1/10) + 9 × (1/100) + 2 × (1/1000). 
5.NBT.3.b  Compare two decimals to thousandths based on meanings of the digits in each place, using >, =, and < symbols to record the results of comparisons. 
5.NBT.4  Use place value understanding to round decimals to any place. 
Number And Operations In Base Ten2  
4.NBT: Generalize Place Value Understanding For MultiDigit Whole Numbers.  
4.NBT.1  Recognize that in a multidigit whole number, a digit in one place represents ten times what it represents in the place to its right. For example, recognize that 700 ÷ 70 = 10 by applying concepts of place value and division. 
4.NBT.2  Read and write multidigit whole numbers using baseten numerals, number names, and expanded form. Compare two multidigit numbers based on meanings of the digits in each place, using >, =, and < symbols to record the results of comparisons. 
4.NBT.3  Use place value understanding to round multidigit whole numbers to any place. 
Use Place Value Understanding And Properties Of Operations To Perform MultiDigit Arithmetic.  
4.NBT.4  Fluently add and subtract multidigit whole numbers using the standard algorithm. 
4.NBT.5  Multiply a whole number of up to four digits by a onedigit whole number, and multiply two twodigit numbers, using strategies based on place value and the properties of operations. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models. 
4.NBT.6  Find wholenumber quotients and remainders with up to fourdigit dividends and onedigit divisors, using strategies based on place value, the properties of operations, and/or the relationship between multiplication and division. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models. 
Ratios And Proportional Relationships  
6.RP: Understand Ratio Concepts And Use Ratio Reasoning To Solve Problems.  
6.RP.1  Understand the concept of a ratio and use ratio language to describe a ratio relationship between two quantities. For example, “The ratio of wings to beaks in the bird house at the zoo was 2:1, because for every 2 wings there was 1 beak.” “For every vote candidate A received, candidate C received nearly three votes.” 
6.RP.2  Understand the concept of a unit rate a/b associated with a ratio a:b with b ≠ 0, and use rate language in the context of a ratio relationship. For example, “This recipe has a ratio of 3 cups of flour to 4 cups of sugar, so there is 3/4 cup of flour for each cup of sugar.” “We paid $75 for 15 hamburgers, which is a rate of $5 per hamburger.”1 
6.RP.3  Use ratio and rate reasoning to solve realworld and mathematical problems, e.g., by reasoning about tables of equivalent ratios, tape diagrams, double number line diagrams, or equations. 
6.RP.3.a  Make tables of equivalent ratios relating quantities with whole number measurements, find missing values in the tables, and plot the pairs of values on the coordinate plane. Use tables to compare ratios. 
6.RP.3.b  Solve unit rate problems including those involving unit pricing and constant speed. For example, if it took 7 hours to mow 4 lawns, then at that rate, how many lawns could be mowed in 35 hours? At what rate were lawns being mowed? 
6.RP.3.c  Find a percent of a quantity as a rate per 100 (e.g., 30% of a quantity means 30/100 times the quantity); solve problems involving finding the whole, given a part and the percent. 
6.RP.3.d  Use ratio reasoning to convert measurement units; manipulate and transform units appropriately when multiplying or dividing quantities. 
7.RP: Analyze Proportional Relationships And Use Them To Solve RealWorld And Mathematical Problems.  
7.RP.1  Compute unit rates associated with ratios of fractions, including ratios of lengths, areas and other quantities measured in like or different units. For example, if a person walks 1/2 mile in each 1/4 hour, compute the unit rate as the complex fraction 1/2/1/4 miles per hour, equivalently 2 miles per hour. 
7.RP.2  Recognize and represent proportional relationships between quantities. 
7.RP.2.a  Decide whether two quantities are in a proportional relationship, e.g., by testing for equivalent ratios in a table or graphing on a coordinate plane and observing whether the graph is a straight line through the origin. 
7.RP.2.b  Identify the constant of proportionality (unit rate) in tables, graphs, equations, diagrams, and verbal descriptions of proportional relationships. 
7.RP.2.c  Represent proportional relationships by equations. For example, if total cost t is proportional to the number n of items purchased at a constant price p, the relationship between the total cost and the number of items can be expressed as t = pn. 
7.RP.2.d  Explain what a point (x, y) on the graph of a proportional relationship means in terms of the situation, with special attention to the points (0, 0) and (1, r) where r is the unit rate. 
7.RP.3  Use proportional relationships to solve multistep ratio and percent problems. Examples: simple interest, tax, markups and markdowns, gratuities and commissions, fees, percent increase and decrease, percent error. 
Statistics And Probability  
6.SP: Develop Understanding Of Statistical Variability.  
6.SP.1  Recognize a statistical question as one that anticipates variability in the data related to the question and accounts for it in the answers. For example, “How old am I?” is not a statistical question, but “How old are the students in my school?” is a statistical question because one anticipates variability in students’ ages. 
6.SP.2  Understand that a set of data collected to answer a statistical question has a distribution which can be described by its center, spread, and overall shape. 
6.SP.3  Recognize that a measure of center for a numerical data set summarizes all of its values with a single number, while a measure of variation describes how its values vary with a single number. 
Summarize And Describe Distributions.  
6.SP.4  Display numerical data in plots on a number line, including dot plots, histograms, and box plots. 
6.SP.5  Summarize numerical data sets in relation to their context, such as by: 
6.SP.5.a  Reporting the number of observations. 
6.SP.5.b  Describing the nature of the attribute under investigation, including how it was measured and its units of measurement. 
6.SP.5.c  Giving quantitative measures of center (median and/or mean) and variability (interquartile range and/or mean absolute deviation), as well as describing any overall pattern and any striking deviations from the overall pattern with reference to the context in which the data were gathered. 
6.SP.5.d  Relating the choice of measures of center and variability to the shape of the data distribution and the context in which the data were gathered. 
7.SP: Draw Informal Comparative Inferences About Two Populations.  
7.SP.3  Informally assess the degree of visual overlap of two numerical data distributions with similar variabilities, measuring the difference between the centers by expressing it as a multiple of a measure of variability. For example, the mean height of players on the basketball team is 10 cm greater than the mean height of players on the soccer team, about twice the variability (mean absolute deviation) on either team; on a dot plot, the separation between the two distributions of heights is noticeable. 
7.SP.4  Use measures of center and measures of variability for numerical data from random samples to draw informal comparative inferences about two populations. For example, decide whether the words in a chapter of a seventhgrade science book are generally longer than the words in a chapter of a fourthgrade science book. 
Investigate Chance Processes And Develop, Use, And Evaluate Probability Models.  
7.SP.5  Understand that the probability of a chance event is a number between 0 and 1 that expresses the likelihood of the event occurring. Larger numbers indicate greater likelihood. A probability near 0 indicates an unlikely event, a probability around 1/2 indicates an event that is neither unlikely nor likely, and a probability near 1 indicates a likely event. 
7.SP.6  Approximate the probability of a chance event by collecting data on the chance process that produces it and observing its longrun relative frequency, and predict the approximate relative frequency given the probability. For example, when rolling a number cube 600 times, predict that a 3 or 6 would be rolled roughly 200 times, but probably not exactly 200 times. 
7.SP.7  Develop a probability model and use it to find probabilities of events. Compare probabilities from a model to observed frequencies; if the agreement is not good, explain possible sources of the discrepancy. 
7.SP.7.a  Develop a uniform probability model by assigning equal probability to all outcomes, and use the model to determine probabilities of events. For example, if a student is selected at random from a class, find the probability that Jane will be selected and the probability that a girl will be selected. 
7.SP.7.b  Develop a probability model (which may not be uniform) by observing frequencies in data generated from a chance process. For example, find the approximate probability that a spinning penny will land heads up or that a tossed paper cup will land openend down. Do the outcomes for the spinning penny appear to be equally likely based on the observed frequencies? 
7.SP.8  Find probabilities of compound events using organized lists, tables, tree diagrams, and simulation. 
7.SP.8.a  Understand that, just as with simple events, the probability of a compound event is the fraction of outcomes in the sample space for which the compound event occurs. 
7.SP.8.b  Represent sample spaces for compound events using methods such as organized lists, tables and tree diagrams. For an event described in everyday language (e.g., “rolling double sixes”), identify the outcomes in the sample space which compose the event. 
7.SP.8.c  Design and use a simulation to generate frequencies for compound events. For example, use random digits as a simulation tool to approximate the answer to the question: If 40% of donors have type A blood, what is the probability that it will take at least 4 donors to find one with type A blood? 
Use Random Sampling To Draw Inferences About A Population.  
7.SP.1  Understand that statistics can be used to gain information about a population by examining a sample of the population; generalizations about a population from a sample are valid only if the sample is representative of that population. Understand that random sampling tends to produce representative samples and support valid inferences. 
7.SP.2  Use data from a random sample to draw inferences about a population with an unknown characteristic of interest. Generate multiple samples (or simulated samples) of the same size to gauge the variation in estimates or predictions. For example, estimate the mean word length in a book by randomly sampling words from the book; predict the winner of a school election based on randomly sampled survey data. Gauge how far off the estimate or prediction might be. 
8.SP: Investigate Patterns Of Association In Bivariate Data.  
8.SP.1  Construct and interpret scatter plots for bivariate measurement data to investigate patterns of association between two quantities. Describe patterns such as clustering, outliers, positive or negative association, linear association, and nonlinear association. 
8.SP.2  Know that straight lines are widely used to model relationships between two quantitative variables. For scatter plots that suggest a linear association, informally fit a straight line, and informally assess the model fit by judging the closeness of the data points to the line. 
8.SP.3  Use the equation of a linear model to solve problems in the context of bivariate measurement data, interpreting the slope and intercept. For example, in a linear model for a biology experiment, interpret a slope of 1.5 cm/hr as meaning that an additional hour of sunlight each day is associated with an additional 1.5 cm in mature plant height. 
8.SP.4  Understand that patterns of association can also be seen in bivariate categorical data by displaying frequencies and relative frequencies in a twoway table. Construct and interpret a twoway table summarizing data on two categorical variables collected from the same subjects. Use relative frequencies calculated for rows or columns to describe possible association between the two variables. For example, collect data from students in your class on whether or not they have a curfew on school nights and whether or not they have assigned chores at home. Is there evidence that those who have a curfew also tend to have chores? 
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Thirdparty researchSEG Measurement, an independent educational research firm, published this 2009 study, whose results indicated students enrolled in classrooms using BrainPOP achieved substantially greater gains in science, language, and reading comprehension.